Towards a Transdisciplinary Mapping of the Theoretical Landscape
This 21st century has brought robust attention to the role the environment plays in human health. This article offers a mapping of the theoretical landscape to help orient and potentially connect the diverse research conducted in the areas of healthy places. The premise is that much research has been conducted within the environmental stress approach to understanding the health-environment nexus, but that additional, important work has also been conducted within both a Fit and a Place approach that provide different insights into healthy places. Each approach has its own underlying assumptions regarding the relationship between human and environment, the research questions that should be asked, the type of validity valued and praxeological assumptions. Each approach also has differing affinities with various theories of health that may serve useful in connecting Healthy Place Research to interdisciplinary research endeavors. Here it is asserted that the concepts and models of allostatic load, salutogenesis and cumulative (dis)advantage hold great promise for connecting Healthy Place Research to robust fields of health inquiry.
Andrade, C. C., & Devlin, A. S. (2015). Stress reduc-tion in the hospital room: Applying Ulrich's theory of supportive design. Journal of Environmental Psychol-ogy, 41, 125-134.
Antonovsky, A. (1987). Unraveling the mystery of health: How people manage stress and stay well. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-bass.
Antonovsky, A. (1991). The structural resources of salutogenic strengths. In C. L. Cooper & R. Payne (Eds.), Personality and stress: Individual differences in the stress process. New York: Wiley.
Antonovsky, A. (1996). The salutogenic model as a theory to guide health promotion. Health Promotion International, 11, 246-253.
Antonucci, T. C., Ajrouch, K. J., & Birditt, K. S. (2013). The convoy model: Explaining social relations from a multidisciplinary perspective. The Gerontologist, 54(1), 82-92.
Battisto, D. & Wilhelm, J. (2020). Architecture and health: Guiding principles for practice. New York; Routledge.
Becker, F., Bonaiuto, M., Bilotta, E., & Bonnes, M. (2011). Integrated healthscape strategies: An ecolog-ical approach to evidence-based design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 4(4), 114-129.
Brownson, R., Fielding, J. & Maylahn, C. (2009). Evi-dence-based public health: A fundamental concept for public health practice. Annual Review of Public Health (30): 175-201.
Bauer, G., Davies, J. & Pelikan, J. (2006). The EUHPID Health Development Model for the classification of public health indicators. Health Promotion Interna-tional, 21(2), 153-159.
Calkins, M. (1988). Design for dementia: Planning environments for the elderly and confused. Owings Mills, MD: National Health Publishing.
Calkins, M. & Weisman, G.D. (1999). Models for envi-ronmental assessment. In B. Schwarz & R. Brent (Eds.), Aging, Autonomy and Architecture: Advances in Assisted Living (pp. 130-142). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Canter, D. V., & Canter, S. (Eds.). (1979). Designing for therapeutic environments: A review of research. John Wiley & Sons.
Caplan, R. (1983). Person-environment fit: Past, pre-sent and future. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Stress research (pp. 35-78). New York: Wiley.
Carp, F. & Carp, A. (1984). A complimentary congru-ence model of well-being or mental health for the community elderly. In I. Altman, M.P. Lawton, & J. Wohlwill (Eds.), Elderly people and their environment. New York: Plenum.
Chaudhury, H. (2003). Quality of life and place-therapy. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 17(1-2), 85-103.
Chaudhury, H., & Oswald, F. (2019). Advancing un-derstanding of person-environment interaction in later life: One step further. Journal of aging stud-ies, 51, 100821.
Dannefer, D. (2003). Cumulative ad-vantage/disadvantage and the life course: Cross-fertilizing age and social science theory. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(6), S327-S337.
Dargél, A. A., Volant, S., Brietzke, E., Etain, B., Olié, E., Azorin, J. M., ... & Roux, P. (2020). Allostatic load, emotional hyper"reactivity, and functioning in indi-viduals with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders.
Dean, R., Proudfoot, R. & Lindesay, J. (1993). The Quality Of Interactions Schedule (QUIS): Develop-ment, reliability and use in the evaluation of two do-mus units. International Journal of Geriatric Psychia-try, 8, 819-826.
Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (2011). The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In N. Denzin & Y. Lincoln (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative re-search, 4th edition (pp. 1-19).
Diaz Moore, K. (2002). Observed Affect in a Demen-tia Day Care Center: Does the physical setting mat-ter? Alzheimer's Care Quarterly, 3(1), p.67-73.
Diaz Moore, K. (2012). From Environment and Behav-ior to Place and Experience: Four Contributions for Change, in Ahrentzen, S., Despres, C. & Schermer, B. (Eds.), Building Bridges, Blurring Boundaries: The Mil-waukee School in Environment-Behavior Studies. Quebec City: Villes Regions Monde.
Diaz Moore, K. (2014). "Ecological Model of Place for the Aging.” International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 79(3):183-209.
Diaz Moore, K., Garcia, I. & Kim, J. (2019). Healthy Places and the Social Life of Older Adults. In L. Kaye & C. Singer (eds.), Social Isolation of Older Adults. New York: Springer.
Diaz Moore, K. & Geboy, L. (2010). The Question of Evidence: Current Worldviews in Environmental De-sign Research and Practice. Architectural Research Quarterly, 14(2), p.105-114.
Diaz Moore, K., Geboy, L., Weisman, G. (2006). De-signing a Better Day: Planning and Design Guidelines for Adult and Dementia Day Centers. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Dijkstra, K., Pieterse, M., & Pruyn, A. (2006). Physical environmental stimuli that turn healthcare facilities into healing environments through psychologically mediated effects: systematic review. Journal of ad-vanced nursing, 56(2), 166-181.
Edwards, J., Caplan, R. & Harrison, R.V. (1998). Per-son-environment fit theory: Conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and directions for future re-search. In C. L. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of organiza-tional stress (pp. 28-67). Oxford: Oxford University Press
Eijkelenboom, A., & Bluyssen, P. M. (2019). Comfort and health of patients and staff, related to the physi-cal environment of different departments in hospi-tals: a literature review. Intelligent Buildings Interna-tional, 1-19.
Elder, G. (1994). Time, human agency, and social change: Perspectives on the life course. Social Psy-chology Quarterly, 57(1), 4-15. Available at http://www.jstor.org/stable/2786971.
Evans, G. (2003). The built environment and mental health. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 80(4), 536-55.
Evans, G. W. (2006). Child development and the phys-ical environment. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 423-451.
Evans, G. & Cohen, S. (1987). Environmental stress. In D. Stokols & I. Altman (eds.), Handbook of Environ-mental Psychology (pp. 571-610). New York: Wiley.
Evans, G. W., & Lepore, S. J. (1993). Household crowding and social support: A quasiexperimental analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psycholo-gy, 65(2), 308.
Evans, G. W., & McCoy, J. M. (1998). When buildings don't work: The role of architecture in human health. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 18(1), 85–94
Ferraro, K. F., & Kelley-Moore, J. A. (2003). Cumula-tive disadvantage and health: long-term conse-quences of obesity? American sociological re-view, 68(5), 707.
French, J. R. P., Jr., Rodgers, W. L., & Cobb, S. (1974). Adjustment as person-environment fit. In G. Coelho, D. Hamburg, & J. Adams (Eds.), Coping and adapta-tion (pp. 316-333). New York: Basic Books.
Geboy, L. (2005). Architecture as a catalyst for organi-zational change: Facilitating a person-centered ap-proach to care in an adult/dementia day center.
Geboy, L., & Meyer-Arnold, B. (2011). Person-centered care in practice. Verona, WI: The Attainment Company.
Geronimus, A. T., Hicken, M., Keene, D., & Bound, J. (2006). "Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among blacks and whites in the United States. American journal of public health, 96(5), 826-833.
Gesler, W. M., & Kearns, R. A. (2005). Culture/place/health (Vol. 16). Routledge.
Gharaveis, A., & Kazem-Zadeh, M. (2018). The role of environmental design in cancer prevention, diagno-sis, treatment, and survivorship: a systematic litera-ture review. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 11(4), 18-32.
Gillis, K., & Gatersleben, B. (2015). A review of psy-chological literature on the health and wellbeing benefits of biophilic design. Buildings, 5(3), 948-963.
Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums. New York: Anchor Books.
Golant, S. (2011). The quest for residential normalcy by older adults: Relocation but one pathway. Journal of Aging Studies, 25(3), 193-205. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2011.03.003
Goldberg, D. S., & McGee, S. J. (2011). Pain as a global public health priority. BMC public health, 11(1), 1-5.
Gubrium, J. (1975). Living and dying at Murray Man-or. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Guidi, J. Lucente, M., Sonino, N. & Fava, G. (2020). Allostatic load and its impact on health: A systematic review. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics: https://doi.org/10.1159/000510696
Guyatt, G., Cairns, J., Churchill, D., et.al. (1992). "Evi-dence-based medicine: A new approach to teaching the practice of medicine. JAMA, 268, 2420-2425.
Hamilton, K. (2003). Hamilton, D. K. (2003). The four levels of evidence-based practice. Healthcare De-sign, 3(4), 18-26.
Hamilton, K. & Watkins, D. (2008). Evidence-based Design for Multiple Building Types. New York: Wiley.
Harrison, R. V. (1978). Person-environment fit and job stress. In C. L. Cooper and R. Payne (Eds.), Stress at work (pp. 175-205). New York: Wiley.
Helson, H. (1964). Current trends and issues in adap-tation-level theory. American psychologist, 19(1), 26.
Howell, S. (1983). The meaning of place in old age. In G. D. Rowles & R. J. Ohta (Eds.), Aging and milieu. Environmental perspectives on growing old (pp. 97-107). New York: Academic Press.
Hu, Y., Leinonen, T., Myrskylä, M., & Martikainen, P. (2020). Changes in socioeconomic differences in hospital days with age: cumulative disadvantage, age-as-leveler, or both?. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 75(6), 1336-1347.
Iwarsson, S. (2012). Implementation of research-based strategies to foster person–environment fit in housing environments: Challenges and experiences during 20 years. Journal of Housing for the Elder-ly, 26(1-3), 62-71.
Jeppesen E, Brurberg KG, Vist GE, et al. . Hospital at home for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5):CD003573
Joseph, A., Bayramzadeh, S., Zamani, Z., & Rosten-berg, B. (2018). Safety, performance, and satisfaction outcomes in the operating room: A literature re-view. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 11(2), 137-150.
Juster, R. P., Sasseville, M., Giguère, C. í‰., Lupien, S. J. (2018). Elevated allostatic load in individuals present-ing at psychiatric emergency services. Journal of psy-chosomatic research, 115, 101-109.
Kahana, E. (1982). A congruence model of person-environment interaction. In M. P. Lawton,
Kahana, E., Lovegreen, L., Kahana, B., & Kahana, M. (2003). Person, environment, and person-environment fit as influences on residential satisfac-tion of elders. Environment and behavior, 35(3), 434-453.
P. Windley, & T. O. Byerts (Eds.), Aging and the envi-ronment: Theoretical approaches (pp. 97-121). New York: Springer.
Kahn, R. L., & Antonucci, T. C. (1980). Convoys over the life course: Attachment, roles, and social support. In P.B. Baltes & O.G. Brim (eds.), Life-span develop-ment and behavior (253-286). New York: Academic Press.
Kaplan, R. & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of na-ture: A psychological perspective. New York: Cam-bridge University Press.
Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of envi-ronmental psychology, 15(3), 169-182.
Kearns, R., & Milligan, C. (2020). Placing therapeutic landscape as theoretical development in Health & Place. Health & Place, 61, 102224.
Kerr, P., Kheloui, S., Rossi, M., Désilets, M., & Juster, R. P. (2020). Allostatic load and women's brain health: A systematic review. Frontiers in Neuroendo-crinology, 100858.
Lai, M. C., Anagnostou, E., Wiznitzer, M., Allison, C., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2020). Evidence-based support for autistic people across the lifespan: maximising poten-tial, minimising barriers, and optimising the person–environment fit. The Lancet Neurology, 19(5): 434-451.
Lather, P. (1986). Research as praxis. Harvard educa-tional review, 56(3), 257-278.
Lawton, M.P. (1970). Ecology and aging. In L. Pastalan & D. Carson (Eds.), Spatial behavior of older people (pp. 41-67). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Insti-tute of Gerontology.
Lawton, M.P. (1982). Competence, environmental press, and the adaptation of older people. In M.P. Lawton, P. Windley, & T. Byerts (Eds.), Aging and the environment: Theoretical approaches. New York: Springer.
Lawton, M.P. (1986). Environment and aging. Albany, NY: Center for the Study of Aging.
Lawton, M.P. (1989). Behavior-relevant ecological factors. In K. Schaie & K. Schooler (Eds.), Social struc-ture and aging: Psychological processes. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA Publishers.
Lawton, M.P., Fulcomer, M., & Kleban, M. (1984). Architecture for the mentally impaired. Environment and Behavior, 16(6), 730-757.
Lawton, M.P. & Nahemow, L. (1973). Ecology and the aging process. In C. Eisdorfer & M.P. Lawton (Eds.), The psychology of adult development and aging (pp. 619-674). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Lawton, M.P. & Simon, B. (1968). The ecology of so-cial relationships in housing for the elderly. The Gerontologist, 8: 108-115.
Lawton, M.P., Van Haitsma, K. & Klapper, J. (1996). Observed affect in nursing home residents with Alz-heimer's disease. Journal of Gerontology, 51B(1), P3-P14.
Lerner, R. (2007). Developmental science, develop-mental systems, and contemporary theories of
human development. In W. Damon & R. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 1; pp. 1-17). New York, NY: Wiley.
Lewin, K. (1936). Principles of topological psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lindström, B., & Eriksson, M. (2005). Salutogene-sis. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 59(6), 440-442.
Lohr, J. B., Chang, H., Sexton, M., & Palmer, B. W. (2019). Allostatic load and the cannabinoid system: implications for the treatment of physiological ab-normalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CNS spectrums, 1-7.
Lyman, K. (1993). Day in, day out with Alzheimer's: Stress in caregiving relationships. Philadelphia: Tem-ple University Press.
McEwen, B. S. (1998). Stress, adaptation, and disease: Allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York academy of sciences, 840(1), 33-44.
McEwen, B. S., & Rasgon, N. L. (2018). The brain and body on stress allostatic load and mechanisms for depression and dementia. Depression As a Systemic Illness, 14.
Marberry, S. O. (2006). Improving healthcare with better building design. Chicago, IL: Health Administra-tion Press.
McCormack, G. R., Koohsari, M. J., Turley, L., Nakaya, T., Shibata, A., Ishii, K., ... & Oka, K. (2019). Evidence for urban design and public health policy and prac-tice: Space syntax metrics and neighborhood walk-ing. Health & Place, 102277.
Miller, E., & Valenti, M. (2014). Healthy Environments Across Generations= Healthy Aging. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 80(1), 90-94.
Milligan, C., & Wiles, J. (2010). Landscapes of care. Progress in Human Geography, 34(6), 736-754.
Moos, R. & Lemke, S. (1994). Group residences for older adults: Physical features, policies, and social climate. New York: Oxford University Press.
Murray, H. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Nilsson, C., Wijk, H., Höglund, L., Sjöblom, H., Hess-man, E., & Berg, M. (2020). Effects of Birthing Room Design on Maternal and Neonate Outcomes: A Sys-tematic Review. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 1937586720903689.
Oh, J., & Han, S. (2018). Mediating effects of person-environment fit between calling and job satisfaction of nurses in small and medium size general hospi-tals. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Admin-istration, 24(5), 365-374.
Peavey, E. & Vander Wyst, K. (2017). Evidence-based design and research-informed design: What's the Difference? Conceptual Definitions and Comparative Analysis. HERD: Health Environments Research & De-sign Journal, 10(5): 143-156.
Peponis, J., & Wineman, J. (2002). Spatial structure of environment and behavior. In R. B. Bechtel & A. Churchman (Eds.), Handbook of environmental psy-chology (p. 271–291). New York: John Wiley.
Pepper, S. C. (1942). World hypotheses: A study in evidence. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Pyrke, R. J., McKinnon, M. C., McNeely, H. E., Ahern, C., Langstaff, K. L., & Bieling, P. J. (2017). Evidence-based design features improve sleep quality among psychiatric inpatients. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 10(5), 52-63.
Regnier, V. & Pynoos, J. (1992). Environmental inter-ventions for gocnitively impaired older persons. In J. Birren, B. Sloane & G. Cohen (eds.), Handbook of mental health and aging (2nd ed.). New York; Aca-demic Press.
Rodiek, S. (2002). Influence of an outdoor garden on mood and stress in older persons. Journal of Thera-peutic Horticulture, 13(1), 13-21.
Rollings, K. A., & Evans, G. W. (2019). Design Modera-tors of Perceived Residential Crowding and Chronic Physiological Stress Among Children. Environment and Behavior, 51(5), 590-621.
Rowles, G. D., & Chaudhury, H. (Eds.). (2005). Home and identity in late life: International perspectives. Springer Publishing Company.
Rubinstein, R. (1989). The home environments of older people: A description of the psychosocial pro-cesses linking person to place. Journal of Gerontolo-gy, 44(2), S45-53.
Sackett, D., Rosenberg, W.M., Gray, J.A. & Richardson, W. (1996). Evidence-based medicine: What it is and what it isn't, British Medical Journal, 312, 71-72.
Saelens, B. E., Sallis, J. F., & Frank, L. D. (2003). Envi-ronmental correlates of walking and cycling: findings from the transportation, urban design, and planning literatures. Annals of behavioral medicine, 25(2), 80-91.
Scheidt & Norris-Baker, 2003. The general ecological model revisited: Evolution, current status, and con-tinuing challenges. Annual review of gerontology and geriatrics, 23, 34-58.
Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw-hill.
Shahheidari, M., & Homer, C. (2012). Impact of the design of neonatal intensive care units on neonates, staff, and families: a systematic literature review. The Journal of perinatal & neonatal nursing, 26(3), 260-266.
Shannon, M., Nordin, S., Bernhardt, J., & Elf, M. (2020). Application of theory in studies of healthcare built environment research. Health Environments Research & Design,
Spielberger, C. D. (1979). Preliminary Manual for the State-Trait Personality Inventory (STPI).University of Florida: Test Forms and Psychometric Data.
Sternberg, E. M. (2009). Healing spaces: The science of place and well-being. Harvard University Press.
Thomson, E. M. (2019). Air pollution, stress, and allo-static load: linking systemic and central nervous sys-tem impacts. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 69(3), 597-614.
Trecartin, S. M., & Cummings, S. M. (2018). Systematic review of the physical home environment and the relationship to psychological well-being among com-munity-dwelling older adults. Journal of gerontologi-cal social work, 61(5), 567-582.
Ugwu, F. O., & Onyishi, I. E. (2020). The Moderating Role of Person-Environment Fit on the Relationship between Perceived Workload and Work Engagement among Hospital Nurses. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 100225.
Ulrich, R.S. (1983). Aesthetic and affective response to natural environment. In I. Altman & JF Wohlwill (Eds.), Human behavior and environment: Advances in theory and research, Volume 6 (pp.85-125). New York: Plenum.
Ulrich, R.S. (1984). View through a window may influ-ence recovery from surgery. Science, 224, 420-421.
Ulrich, R.S. (1991). Effects of interior design on well-ness: Theory and recent scientific research. Journal of healthcare interior design, , 97-109.
Ulrich, R. S. (1999). Effects of gardens on health out-comes: Theory and research. In C. Marcus & M. Barnes (Eds.), Healing gardens: Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Ulrich, R.S., Zimring, C., Joseph, A., et.al. (2004). The role of the physical environment in the hospital of the 21st century: A once-in-a-lifetime opportunity. Con-cord, CA: Center for Health Design.
Ulrich, R.S., Zimring, C., Quan, X. & Joseph, A. (2006). The environment's impact on stress. In S. Marberry (ed.), Improving Healthcare with Better Building De-sign.
Ulrich, R.S., Zimring, C., Zhu, X., DuBose, J., Seo, H. B., Choi, Y. S., ... & Joseph, A. (2008). A review of the research literature on evidence-based healthcare design. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 1(3), 61-125.
Van de Glind, I., de Roode, S., & Goossensen, A. (2007). Do patients in hospitals benefit from single rooms? A literature review. Health Policy, 84(2-3), 153-161.
Van Haitsma, K., Abbott, K. M., Arbogast, A., Banger-ter, L. R., Heid, A. R., Behrens, L. L., & Madrigal, C. (2020). A Preference-Based model of care: an inte-grative theoretical model of the role of preferences in Person-Centered care. The Gerontologist, 60(3), 376-384.
van Vianen, A. E. (2018). Person–environment fit: A review of its basic tenets. Annual Review of Organiza-tional Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5, 75-101.
Verderber, S., & Refuerzo, B. J. (2019). Innovations in hospice architecture. London: Routledge.
Wahl, H-W. & Weisman, G.D. (2003). Environmental gerontology at the beginning of the new millennium: Reflections on its historical, empirical and theoretical development. The Gerontologist, 43(5), 616-627.
Webster's (1990). ‘Evidence' in Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, MA: Merriam Web-ster & Co.
Weisman, G.D. (1997). Environments for older per-sons with cognitive impairments. In G.T. Moore & R.W. Marans (Eds.), Advances in environment, behav-ior and design (315-346). New York: Plenum.
Weisman, G. D. (2001). The place of people in archi-tectural design. In A. Pressman (Ed.), The architect's portable design handbook: A guide to best practices (pp. 158-170). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Weisman, G.D., Chaudhury, H. & Diaz Moore, K. (2000). Theory and practice of place: Toward an in-tegrative model. In R. Rubinstein, M. Moss, & M. Kleban (Eds.), The many dimensions of aging: Essays in honor of M. Powell Lawton (pp. 3–21). New York: Springer.
Wells, N. M., Evans, G. W., & Cheek, K. A. (2016). En-vironmental psychology. In H. Frumkin (Ed.), Environ-mental health: From global to local. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wiles, J. (2005). Conceptualizing place in the care of older people: the contributions of geographical ger-ontology. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14(S2), pp. 100-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2702.2005.01281.x.
Windley, P. G., Scheidt, R. J., 1980;. Person–environment dialectics: Implications for competent functioning in old age. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 407–423). Wash-ington, DC: American Psychological Association
Wood, V. J., Gesler, W., Curtis, S. E., Spencer, I. H., Close, H. J., Mason, J., & Reilly, J. G. (2015). ‘Thera-peutic landscapes' and the importance of nostalgia, solastalgia, salvage and abandonment for psychiatric hospital design. Health & place, 33, 83-89.
Zeisel, J., Hyde, J., & Levkoff, S. (1994). Best practices: An environment-behavior (EB) model for Alzheimer special care units. American Journal of Alzheimers Disease, 9(2), pp.4-21.
Copyright (c) 2020 Keith Diaz Moore
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal which is under a Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).