ARCC Conference Repository 2018-11-09T18:02:45-05:00 Hazem RashedAli Open Journal Systems <span>The ARCC Conference Repository is a web-indexed respository of papers published in proceedings from the Architectural Research Centers Consortium conference series. All papers have been double-blind peer reviewed. The repository is indexed by Worldcat.</span> Parklets, Social Media and Public Health 2018-09-25T08:41:28-04:00 Michael Obrien <p>The state of public health in America is being significantly eroded by rising rates of Hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, Stroke, Coronary heart disease, and mental illness related consequences of obesity. (CDC Adult Obesity 2017) The small postwar American city is reviewed with emphasis on walkability, food deserts, public health and sedentary lifestyles. Food, both prepared and unprepared as well as social and health screening services, delivered in close proximity (the five minute walk) to ones residence is proposed as an incentive for walking, thus eroding the sedentary lifestyle and mitigating some associated long term health effects. A combination of social movements (parklets), mobile prepared food outlets (food trucks) and social media (Twitter, Facebook) are proposed as enabling elements notifying residents of food or services available, when the food or services will be nearby, and allow for pre-purchasing to insure successful resident’s shopping. A network of these parklets is proposed as a public health infrastructure element, much like a municipal water or sewage system. The network insures proximity for residents (five minute walks) and assures vendors of a larger market for their goods and services. This paper presents a proposal to bring together small public spaces, neighborhood centers, with a social media enabled micro-economy to offer an incentive to sedentary city residents to make a small walk to their neighborhood “parklet” to obtain goods and services. This proposes remodeling the American Suburb. The paper investigates the relationship between the post-war shift from walkable neighborhood designs to autooriented neighborhood designs and proposes the pre-WWII approach to walkability, the “Neighborhood Unit” as a part of the solution to the health crisis arising out of sedentary life. This paper focuses on the potential for developing the network of “Parklets” as part of a community’s public health infrastructure. The paper will further introduce the role of a social media enabled micro-economy, the state of city codes and regulations impacting “parklets” across the U.S. and prototype designs of temporary and more permanent “parklets”.</p> 2018-09-25T08:41:27-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding Place: A Reassessment of the Built Work of Giancarlo De Carlo in Urbino, Italy 2018-09-25T08:50:43-04:00 Mark A. Blizard <p>While regionalism and placed-based strategies have returned to the forefront of the design discourse in the United States––gaining acceptance as a part of sustainable practice and shaping academic curricula––the work of Giancarlo De Carlo has remained curiously in the margins. Although much has been written about the Milanese architect over the years, little is available in English. In history books, his accomplishments are limited to a few references: along with Alison and Peter Smithson, De Carlo was an important member of Team X following the general disillusionment with the CIAM and its Athens Charter. De Carlo’s initial study of Urbino (1964) is held up as a model for its consideration of place, social discourse and the role of the architect. Later, he emerged as an advocate of participatory design. Although both a writer and an educator, he left no singular treatise and was seemingly uninterested in theoretical pursuit as an end in itself. His built work, however, remains vital today––not just as a historical milestone, but for the lessons and insight that it offers. It is the purpose of this paper to gather and propose a codification of De Carlo’s understanding of place and its import to shaping architectural design. For De Carlo, design was a complex practice of back and forth negotiations between landscape (city–region–culture) and provisional design responses, each tested through the analytical process of “reading the territory”. Using a modern architectural language, he sought continuity of cultural forms through a placed-based design response that structured continued change while reinforcing the identity of its place. In support, this paper draws from the few writings that analyze his approach to design, his sources and influences, as well as from the author’s direct analysis of De Carlo’s built work in Urbino, Italy. Discussions with architects Antonio Troisi and Monica Mazzolani–</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Methods for integrating parametric design with building performance analysis 2018-09-25T14:37:17-04:00 Ajla Aksamija <p>This paper discusses methods for integrating parametric design with building performance analysis procedures, specifically presenting tools and design methodologies that are suitable for whole building design. In this research, an ideal framework for integration of parametric and performance analysis procedures was developed. Then, the framework was tested using existing software applications, including building information modeling (BIM), non-BIM, parametric design and building performance analysis applications. Current applications that can integrate some form of building performance simulation with parametric modelling include Rhino 3D (non-BIM), Revit (BIM), and SketchUp (non-BIM). Revit and Rhino each have visual programming plugins to aid in the creation of parametric forms. In this research, three different workflows were tested. Specifically, Honeybee and Ladybug (for Rhino 3D), Insight 360 (for Revit) and Sefaira (for Revit) were evaluated. A case study building was used to test and evaluate the workflows, interoperability, modeling strategies and results. Three different building performance aspects were analyzed for each workflow: 1) energy modeling, 2) solar radiation analysis, and 3) daylighting. Simulation results from energy modeling, solar radiation and daylight simulations were recorded and analyzed. However, besides simulation results, the paper compares modeling procedures, parametric capabilities of investigated applications, ease of integration and interoperability. The results show a promising course for integrating parametric design with building performance simulations.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Preliminary Study of the Architektonischer Garten as a Post-perspectival Concept 2018-09-25T14:39:13-04:00 Liyang Ding <p>This paper examines the concept of architektonischer Garten, an understudied idea that came to define early modern architecture. Presented as a brief examination of its historical transformation from a garden design approach to a spatial configuration model, this paper reinterprets the history of this concept with a focus on the relationship between the man, the house, and its surrounding gardens. Starting from offering a long-overdue definition of the architektonischer Garten concept, this paper explains the formation and development of this concept by studying the corresponding contribution of Hermann Muthesius and Mies van der Rohe, arguing that the sense of space evoked by the architektonischer Garten is, through offering a self-exceeding mode of experience, “circumstantial” and “holistic.” Further, the architektonischer Garten can be understood as the key spatial concept that characterized the post-perspectival age, by virtue of our perception of spatial depth, capable of forming an integral whole consists of the perceiving subject and the perceived world, which includes both indoor space and outdoor topography.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mies van der Rohe Space, Material and Detail 2018-09-25T14:43:11-04:00 Edgar Stach <p>Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is widely regarded as one of the most influential architects and architectural theorists of the 20th century. His work is unmistakable in its clarity and the rigor with which it embodies the principles of rationalism and functionalism, as well as in its spatial qualities, material expression and detailing. Typical for his style is the clear definition of place, the idea of universal space, the legible logic of the construction and precise detailing. For Mies, technological advances were a driving force of architecture, a spirit of the times that architecture should embrace and express. Above all, clarity and structure, not just in terms of the construction but also in intellectual thought, were for him the only way to create architectural space. Space for Mies was something that continues beyond its physical limits and creates connections between inside and outside.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Software Development Within Architecture 2018-09-25T15:52:55-04:00 C. Grey Isley Dana Gulling <p>Developmental leaps within digital technology has impacted architectural form and advanced how architects communicate, analyze, and incorporate advanced building technologies into their designs. Occurring over a period of decades, software’s impact on the practice of architecture has escalated through an increase in its accessibility and adoption by the profession’s leading architects. This has resulted in digital technology becoming one the largest contributors to innovation within the architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, fundamentally changing the architectural process, and to some extent the contemporary design language. To better understand the relationship between digital technology and architecture, this study looks at a sampling of software utilized by the industry and evaluates it over a spectrum of time based on functional and developmental characteristics. Through the creation of a graphical representation of the collected data, patterns between taxonomies, software development, and its usage within architecture have been observed. It is proposed these trends can aid in the understanding of the landscape of software development, how it has transitioned over time, what programs are available for usage within architecture, and how they are interrelated with the architectural process. These trends -- aided by the understanding gained from their analysis -- can then be utilized to facilitate a discussion regarding how the trends relate to larger developmental tendencies within the AEC industry and be used as measures for the changing landscape of the architectural process.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Expanding study abroad in a global context 2018-09-25T15:55:10-04:00 David M. Breiner <p>Architecture programs in the U.S. have incorporated study abroad experiences as a means of exposing students to geographical and cultural diversity. This paper analyzes and promotes an innovative approach to study abroad called Nexus Abroad. A summer 2016 iteration involving a group of faculty and students from varied disciplines serves as a case study. The three-week-long course combined geographical and cultural diversity with a collaborative, transdisciplinary structure, providing students with a more integrated global perspective. It accomplished that not through a studio project, but by focusing on a common theme in which architecture was studied as one of many components that constitute a society. The course united liberal-artsderived goals of global awareness, resourcefulness, and openness to other cultures with discipline-specific goals, in this case four National Architectural Accrediting Board student performance criteria. The benefits of and potential improvements to this short study-abroad course are revealed by examining student deliverables and focused interviews, comparing pre- and post-course surveys, and evaluating students’ grades before and after their participation in Nexus Abroad.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Japan-ness + Gaijin-ness 2018-09-25T16:03:39-04:00 Brian R. Sinclair Yuki Sinclair <p>Tokyo is the world’s largest, utmost complex and arguably most livable city. With a metropolitan region housing more people than Canada, Tokyo proves enigmatic – despite overwhelming size it’s walkable, attractive, resilient, safe + dynamic. As a living laboratory for study of Architecture, Planning and Urban Design, Tokyo is second to none. The present research, critically considering &amp; imaginatively exploring pedagogy, culture and competency, focused on an annually-offered Japan-based innovative/immersive study abroad initiative for environmental design graduate students. Urban design is at the core of the threemonth study abroad venture. Lying at the nexus of Architecture &amp; Planning, Urban Design in this amazing city is rich, diverse, creative and highly successful. In a city with daunting complexity quality of life is astounding, richness of milieu is remarkable, and design boldness unparalleled. The term abroad is structured with two intertwined course offerings – design studio and urban theory class. Both studio and theory class engage in intense critical analysis of city and components. The three month period is organized into three related phases: Characterizing Tokyo; Urban Ideation, and Urban Design Intervention. Threading through of these aspects is overarching interest in urban typologies. Key to learning is development of self/world views, including sensitivities around Japan-ness (local) versus Gaijin-ness (foreign) perspectives on design. From a learning perspective few vehicles are as potent as study abroad. The research, focused on development/analysis of a Tokyo graduate studio, proffers an innovative model for studio-based education and offers lessons surrounding potent ways to prepare design students for the realities of more complex, demanding and internationally intertwined futures. The present paper is exploratory in intent and extent – it examines a unique study abroad venture and novel teaching approach that is in many ways speculative, preliminary, unconventional and provocative. The paper reveals key dimensions of pedagogy, encounter and education that open fascinating doors and call for richer and more rigorous study.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Relationship between Sunlight Pattern Geometry and Visual Comfort in Daylit Offices 2018-09-25T16:34:12-04:00 Belal Abboushi Ihab Elzeyadi <p>Sunlight in buildings is a multisensory phenomenon that can enhance occupants’ comfort, health, and connection with the outside environment through its dynamic luminous and thermal attributes. Current daylighting design guidelines limit sunlight penetration in work environments, reducing both its negative and positive effects on visual comfort and occupants’ satisfaction with their indoor environment. One gap in existing literature on sunlight exposure is the lack of addressing the effect of visual interest for both sunlight pattern geometry and its play of brilliants on visual comfort. This paper aims to examine differences in visual comfort and interest assessments under three different sunlight pattern geometries. This paper reports on the results of a quasi-experiment conducted in an office building in Portland, OR. Three experimental settings (hereafter test stations) were created at the office using different window treatments to create three sunlight geometries −Fractal Pattern, Striped Pattern, and ‘No-Pattern’− which were tested and compared for their impact on visual interest, visual comfort, and view quality. The study followed a withinsubjects design (same group experienced three different sunlight conditions) where 22 office employees completed a brief questionnaire at each test station, while quantitative environmental data were collected. Results showed that visual comfort and visual interest ratings for the Fractal Pattern were higher than those for the Striped Pattern, though the difference was not statistically significant. View ratings for the two patterns were significantly lower than those for No-Pattern (p&lt;0.001). Interestingly, the relationship between the glare metric DGP and visual comfort ratings varied across the three stations. Further, the difference in visual interest between the Striped Pattern and No-Pattern stations was statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Overall, findings suggest that the visual interest of sunlight patterns and views influenced subjective visual comfort assessments. Implication of this study can inform the design of future facade systems to enhance occupants’ visual comfort, interest, and satisfaction with their indoor environment.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reconstructing Antiquity 2018-09-25T16:50:21-04:00 Tim Frank <p>This paper presents a new approach to archeological reconstruction, utilizing state-based building performance simulation (BPS) tools to compare regressed climate data and architectural features unearthed during field excavation. In the archaeological discipline, where reconstructions of architectural systems are routine, no applied methodologies have been established that highlight the use of state-based BPS tools as a complimentary track to culture-based forms of interpretation. To address this shortfall, this paper offers an overview of a BPS enhanced workflow that prioritizes trial and error experimentation, enriched by the systematic observation of building-environment relationships that are fundamental to early dwelling patterns. The workflow consists of four primary phases: (1) the integration of archaeological datasets within an interoperable modeling domain; (2) the introduction of input states into the domain with subsequent statechange observation; (3) the corroboration of simulation output across multiple analysis types; and (4) the reiteration of various building configurations. The interaction of the base modeling platform and the simulation plug-in components within a common interface eases the swift instantiation of reconstruction alternatives from output acquired using state-based lighting, radiation and fluid dynamics domain branches. The observed behavior of light, heat and airflow patterns within the simulation domain invite incremental revisions to virtual models that test their probability with respect to the maintenance of human health described in ancient treatises. The paper provides an in-depth description of each workflow phase and demonstrates their functionality using case studies from classical sites in ancient Asia Minor including Miletus, Priene and Pergamon where structures currently exist in an incomplete state. While much can be understood about these building systems from even meager archaeological records including building location, ground integration, structural configuration and spatial disposition; new knowledge about how early populations organized space around the dictates of climate can be elicited using BPS tools.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Charnley-Norwood House 2018-09-25T16:53:50-04:00 Tim Frank <p>The Charnley-Norwood House, situated along the Mississippi Gulf Coast, is a lesser-known vacation bungalow drawn by Frank Lloyd Wright as an experiment while working under his “Lieber Meister”, Louis Sullivan. Built in the latter part of the 19th century, it exemplifies a turning point in American architecture as the groundwork for Wright’s signature Prairie Style was taking root. Embedded within this structure are fundamentals about an organic approach to architecture, clearly demonstrated by the assimilation of the building into the interworkings of both site and climate. Sullivan and Wright scholars both agree that this house, undocumented to-date, serves as a significant milestone in the history of American environmental design. What is unknown about the house is how the dictates of the coastal gulf climate influenced its spatial disposition and how this composition grew out of well-established traditions of environmental design. The Tshaped bungalow encompasses many distinctive features including its overall horizontality, an overarching parasol roof plane, a permeable building exterior and intermediary space types along its perimeter. The open plan organization follows its predecessors in its thinness with rooms dispersed along each axis, creating multiple exposures that alter the orientation of interior spaces to year-round climatic effects. Operating in concert, these attributes serve to admit prevailing breezes, extend views to the surrounding landscape, and shade inhabitable areas; hallmarks that would alter the course of 20th century residential architecture in America. Using computational simulation tools, this paper discloses how the bungalow advances strategies of passive design utilized by early 19th century predecessors and paves the way toward an environmentally integrated 20th century period of residential construction. Additionally, this paper offers insight into a formative moment in architectural history when two American masters were in direct collaboration.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Thinking for the Global Community in an Era of Disruption 2018-09-25T17:16:05-04:00 Madlen D. Simon <p>What can the entrepreneur’s version of design thinking teach architects practicing globally in an era of disruption? A literature survey and comparative analysis of design thinking in architecture and the business community leads to a set of recommendations for architectural educators preparing students to enter a rapidly changing, globalized practice environment. Two aspects of design thinking particularly relevant to this endeavor are teamwork and problem definition. Architectural projects often begin with a defined problem that embodies its solution. Typically, a client seeks an architect when the organization has determined that it needs a building. The architect’s design challenge contained within that solution space. Programming process refines that design challenge by defining elements, qualities, and performance requirements of any potential solution. Programming may be performed by the design architect, but often by a consultant, and considered additional services. Consequently, architects often enter the scene after the problem has been defined. Design thinking in architecture tends to focus on individual cognitive processes. By contrast, the entrepreneurial community stresses the importance of discovering the right problem to solve. The foundation of this process is empathy; the underlying theory is that a product or service will only be embraced if it addresses the needs, desires, and emotions of its users. The next step is to define the problem, based upon insights gained through empathizing. At this point in the process, the solution is still far in the distance. Defining the problem is like discovering a research question in what Herbert Simon termed the science of the artificial (Simon 1996), pursuit of knowledge about what might be. Entrepreneurial design thinking tends to focus on collaborative process and value of diverse teams. Lessons from this form of design thinking can prepare students for a practice environment characterized by diversity and disruption of familiar institutions and typologies.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding the impact of the residential built environment design on inhabitants’ wellbeing 2018-09-25T17:43:47-04:00 Hameda Janahi Shibu Raman Gabriela Zapata-Lancaster <p>An increasing body of evidence suggests that some of the contemporary forms of the physical environment have a negative influence on the wellbeing of its inhabitants. This paper presents a literature review on the impact of the built environment on the inhabitants’ wellbeing in the residential context. The paper reviews recent literature from various interconnected fields such as psychology, physiology, and sociology in the built environment context. Previous research has shown that the characteristics of the built environment can influence all aspects of human life. The effect of the built environment on the physical and psychological wellbeing is extensively investigated. However, there is limited research on the relationship between the residential built environment and social wellbeing, as measured by social integration and cohesion which suggests the need for more exploration, particularly in the context of the Middle-East. The lack of understanding results in a disconnection between the local communities’ socio-cultural needs and actual design and supply of housing. The broader aim of this research is to identify indicators that evaluate wellbeing, dwellings, and neighborhoods. These indicators can be used by researchers, architects, urban planner and policymakers to study and design neighborhoods.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dysfunctional design + construction 2018-09-28T06:49:02-04:00 Salah Imam Brian R. Sinclair <p>Architecture is routinely recognized as being a valuable vehicle to improve our living spaces and enhance the quality of life. The notion of quality of life covers domains such as the interpersonal, psychological, spiritual and financial. In many ways, and in many jurisdictions, the connection between contemporary design &amp; delivery systems for buildings, qualities of life and promotion of our community are broken. Quality of life is dynamic; people and the environment change over time. Hence, the role that agile architecture plays in this process, and in particular, what place it occupies in the unique social, political, environmental and economic setting is vital to promote the concept of quality living. Agility in buildings establishes the capacity to respond to evolving demands with regard to function, space, parameters and performance. However, for a plethora of reasons, robust solutions able to adapt to future changes are infrequent in present design practices and products. Additionally, worldwide population growth, scarcity of resources, and climate change warrant a dramatic shift in architectural practices to embrace concepts of agility – thereby realizing more dynamic and adaptive design solutions that can respond to an increasingly fluid, volatile and uncertain milieu. The present research critically assesses the status quo and in response synthesizes a conceptual framework for agility in architecture. Methods incorporated include meta-analysis, logical argumentation and case studies. Key deficiencies in the marketplace and contextual barriers against formulating/implementing such a framework are delineated. The seminal historic precedents of agile projects are drawn from numerous global cities, illustrating agility concepts in design, construction, legislative, and financial ethos. Case studies, in tandem with a strategic literature review, highlights leading themes, ideas and practices of agile architecture worldwide. This paper advocates the concept of agility as an indicator of the quality of life amongst architects, by adopting a more familiar language to them and by moving towards the development of a cohesive framework aimed at integrating interlocking distinct processes, better interlacing design phases to construction, operation, occupancy, disassembly and reuse. The forthcoming frame is viewed as a medium to aid developers, designers, builders and policymakers in applying and realizing greater project agility. Agility in this context must be the result of meaningful and productive relations between all layers, agents, facets and forces affecting the project – in essence migrating away from the static architectural practices and staid architectural outcomes that define modern building design. In the view of the researchers, “change” must be the new constant.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Start-Up Buildings 2018-09-28T06:52:00-04:00 João Silva Leite <p>The urban mobility infrastructure axes have an important potential in the structuring and aggregation of the urban fabric. Throughout the last century this fact takes on special relevance due to the increasing fragmentation of the fabric and its processes of composition. It is through the main infrastructural axes that the relations of continuity, physical and spatial, are often preserved occurring in certain cases a distortion of the notions of space and time. Thus, the strategic (and spatial) value of these urban elements causes, in the contemporary city, the definition of new linear centralities that attract buildings and singular uses. Marginal occupation often occurs in a fragmented and individual way. Infrastructure and urban fabric are thought out, and constructed, separately, creating often weak morphological relationships or indirect systems. Despite this, it is evident the creation of symbiotic mechanisms of interrelation between the infrastructural axis and the surrounding built fabric. Its formal caracteristics are influenciated by the visibility allowed by the infrasctrutural axis. A more or less constant continuum is built, but the vision as a whole appears relatively inconsistent, not stabilized and poorly articulated with the adjacent urban context. The formal composition of the building itself has contradictory characteristics, on one hand it establishes strong visual and functional bonds with the infrastructural axis, but on other hand, its form as an architectural object, does not always contribute to a qualification of the space as a whole. The article seeks to look in a particular way for the case of the Start-Up Buildings, singular buildings that by their morphological and functional characteristics are promoters of particular dynamics capable of reinventing the urban space around them. There is particular interest in its ability to generate ambiguous urban spaces, developers of crossings and connections between distinct parts of the city, as well as links between the built fabric and the mobility infrastructure that supports it. In this way, through the study of these Start-Up Buildings is intended to collect contributions that can inform the exercise of the project, using them as didactic objects and not as models. It seeks to systematize principles of composition that allow a better articulation between certain infrastructural axes and the singular buildings that surround them, such as for example shopping centres or megastores. The qualification of the public space and the relation that it constructs with the collective space is seen as a factor that would potentiate the capacity to connect the two elements: infrastructure and building.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Initial Developments and Projections of 3D Construction Printing 2018-09-28T06:53:58-04:00 Rodrigo García-Alvarado <p>3D Construction Printing is a novel technology to elaborate building parts by material deposition. This technique is emerging through several university and entrepreneurial initiatives, mostly in developed countries. Some exploratory buildings and/or pieces have been created and diverse companies plan to execute large constructions. This article aims to review architectural and urban projections of this technology based on these experiences and initial tests and developments in Concepción, Chile. Supplies and equipment has been collected and a number of concrete printing trials has been carried out. Additionally, parametric programming of 3D-printed walls is being developed in a BIM platform in order to generate and evaluate architectural models. Also, a robotic installation is being set-up with the support of a national program on building productivity, research centers and industrial companies. The material tests have demonstrated the feasibility of construction printing with local materials, in addition to an important reduction in the time and resources needed to produce pieces with different shapes, although this process does require automation, structural verification and large-scale execution. The parametric programming in BIM shows the integration of the design-to-construction process, in addition to versatility and optimization of architectural designs. The planning of an industrial installation expresses the convergence of different stakeholders in this technology and a particular interest in to develop local supplies and machines. These activities and other experiences suggest the impact of 3D construction printing on the emergence of new manufacturing systems for buildings, that impels an architecture of curved profiles and appealing spaces that can become part of the real-estate market as experimental neighborhoods and/or iconic buildings, related to new social trends.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Fragmentation of Monumental Buildings 2018-09-28T06:58:29-04:00 Pedro Vasco de Melo Martins <p>The city is a living entity, dynamic, and in permanent construction. In the constantly changing human landscape dominated by the common fabric, prone to quick transformations, monumental buildings, given their high cultural value as well as robust construction, tend to show a greater resistance, remaining relatively stable trough out hundreds or even thousands of years. Yet, in periods of crisis or quick cultural change, even the resilient monumental buildings can suddenly lose their function or collective cultural value, undergoing a complete transformation of their unique nature as they appropriated and transformed by the common urban fabric, in a process identified as fragmentation. From the ancient monumental roman structures occupied in the middle ages to the transformation of the Kowloon fort in Hong Kong in the second half of the 20th century, the communication proposes, through an analysis of several case studies, a reflection of how the subversive, ad-hoc and informal nature of fragmentation makes it one of the richest processes of urban fabric formation. In this sense, the knowledge of this process can be an important architectural design tool, contributing for the enrichment of the erudite architectural discourse, as well as, helping to understand the shape of the contemporary city as a result of sequence of events that can be identified, interpreted, classified and explained.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Compact or Dispersed? Examining the Effectiveness of Low Surface-to-Volume Ratios 2018-09-28T07:00:53-04:00 Karlla Dreser Tim Frank <p>In a United Nations 2013 survey tracking World Sustainable Development Challenges, a global ‘one size fits all’ approach to sustainable development was distinguished and precluded from policy frameworks as regional priorities, objectives and paths toward sustainable development were notably diverse. Regional specificity is particularly evident in the formal and spatial disposition of vernacular buildings that respond directly to climate zone characteristics in that area. Today, despite the proven effectiveness of these past approaches, sustainable building guidelines have embraced the belief that buildings are more efficient through the widespread adoption of system building technologies, compact building forms and the subsequent reduction of surface to volume (S/V) ratios. This trajectory relies heavily upon interior building systems and exterior envelope technology, endowing much of a building’s performance to the integrity of these components to ensure thermal comfort. However, in some climates, like temperate profiles with hot and humid summers, this approach may not produce the most energy efficient solutions. To test the validity of this direction, this paper systematically explores two structures in the Southern U.S., a distinctly temperate climate with hot and humid summers, to ascertain whether designing compact structures is an appropriate strategy for energy savings, especially when this approach contradicts lessons offered by vernacular structures built in the same region centuries prior. This comparative analysis examines the Sadler House, a 19th century modified dogtrot located in McCalla, Alabama with a S/V ratio of 0.41 and the LEED Platinum RainShine House, a 21st century house located in Decatur, Georgia with a S/V ratio of 0.24. The results indicate the spatial disposition of the 19th century house outperforms that of its 21st century successor when inheriting the same interior and exterior system characteristics. The outcomes of this analysis reexamine vernacular strategies and stimulate the conversation pertaining to widely accepted sustainable design principles.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Documenting Intent 2018-09-28T07:04:04-04:00 Jacklynn Niemiec <p>Indoor environments cannot rely on global positioning systems for navigation, which poses a stark contrast to the immediacy and accuracy of positioning and navigation in outdoor environments. The study of indoor navigation has grown in two general topic areas, navigation of indoor space and machine learning of indoor environments. This paper will only review the current research in indoor space navigation and the modes of modeling space for a prescribed route. Literature reviews of indoor positioning have considered the array of approaches within the network and inertial models, the precision of each approach, and each system’s fitness in a mass-market application. Yet, with a significant relationship to the built environment, a review of indoor positioning’s impact on the field of architecture and more specifically, its relationship to spatial documentation has yet to be considered.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dr. Saba George Shiber 2018-09-28T07:06:20-04:00 Aminah Hamad al-Kanderi <p>The discussion of Arabian modernity during the post-war period arose within the process of decolonization, and the reconfiguration of the new Arab metropolis. In the mid-20th century, as the Arab states developed, the Arab region did not only showcase international imported models of modernity; it also exported its own unique concepts of architectural regionalism. Dr. Saba George Shiber’s studies of the "Contemporary Arab Metropolis" played a key role in the evolution of architectural regionalism. This paper will review the discourse of architectural regionalism as an ideological and technical implication of the Arab metropolis. To trace the urban and architectural models developed for the Arab region, I will review some of Shiber's written work, discuss his built and proposed projects, and highlight planning tools, including the urban renewal, architectural control, and the study of "Faces of the City."</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geometries of the gaze and the invisibility 2018-09-29T08:39:03-04:00 Jorge Cruz Pinto <p>This research lies between the visible and the latent structures of invisibility, and is supported by my theory of the Space-Limit. It integrates a set of original geometric analysis carried out on a well-known work of a Italian Renaissance painting and several historical buildings, in Portugal and in Spain. The matrix identification of sacred geometry, and the systems of forces and vector fields between the visible and the invisible recognized by the Gestalt theory become fundamental for our research. These latent structures define the DNA of the works that crosses different architectural cultures. The specific theme of the Geometry of the Gaze is based on my geometric analysis of the famous Renaissance fresco "La Trinità" by Masaccio (1428), where "perspective as a symbolic form" (Panovsky, 1991) constitutes the device for representing the interior architectural space. Underlying the representation is a vector tracing based on the matrix principles ad triangulum and ad quadratum that unites the eyes of the various characters represented through the geometries of the gaze. Vector lines of forces construct the "frame of the visible". Geometry constructs the plot that deepens the gaze beyond the imagery of Christian iconology, allowing access to the symbolism of the Tree of Life of Jewish Kabbalah that reveals itself as the structure from the latent plane. The same matrix geometric principles are present in the successive phases of the construction of the Mosque- Cathedral in Cordoba. The “ad triangulum”, “ad quadratum” and “ad circulum” principles are also recognized in other buildings of other religious cultures, which will illustrate the discourse. Similar principles of the geometries of the gaze and the invisibility are applied in my contemporary architectural and pictorial production, such as portraits and para-architectural works, between painting, architecture and installation, developed under the theme of in praise of emptiness.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Model for Public-Private-Academic Partnership 2018-09-29T15:01:31-04:00 Courtney Crosson <p>As cities are pushed to the forefront of global climate leadership, long-range urban design and planning are increasingly urgent, yet municipalities face resource constraints. This paper provides a replicable model for academia to join with practice and local governments to fill this resource gap. This paper examines the case of a public-private-academic partnership (PPAP) formed between GLHN Architects &amp; Engineers; the staff of the City of Tucson, Arizona; and the University of Arizona (UA). Led through an UA upper-level interdisciplinary design studio, the partnership used spatial mapping, quantitative analysis, and design inquiry to create a plan to achieve year 2050 carbon and water neutrality targets without sacrificing either livability or projected growth in downtown Tucson, Arizona. The case study demonstrates that the PPAP model can (1) marshal the necessary resources and expertise toward climate planning when small and medium size cities face resource constraints and (2) prepare the next generation of urban planners and designers with the analytical and design skills to leverage local expertise for climate planning, action, and monitoring. The Tucson model has secured multiyear investment from private and public partners as a result of the phase one work and has won awards for education (Arizona Forward’s State Educator Award), design (Arizona AIA State Design Award for Regional and Urban Planning), and leadership (ACSA/AIA National Practice and Leadership Award).</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Critical WikiHouse 2018-09-29T15:05:45-04:00 Rishabh Parmar Susannah Dickinson <p>The construction industry is one of the largest consumers of natural resources in the world, being responsible for 50% of the carbon emissions recorded since the 1950's (Adriaanse et al.,1997). While the information age has brought us tremendous amounts of environmental data and design computational ability that can be leveraged to create advanced sustainable design solutions in architecture, the dissemination and implementation of the tools and techniques of sustainable design are limited to a small fraction of the construction industry with architects designing only 2% of the total building construction worldwide (Parvin 2013). With the world population projected to rise by billion in the next 15 years, mass sustainable housing systems are going to play a crucial role in achieving sustainable development (Gerald 2014). This research suggests that the increasing availability of environmental data, combined with the ease of access to powerful computational capabilities and low costs of customized digital fabrication are the modern resources that can direct architecture in a way that is environmentally stable, resource conscious and ultimately sustainable. The research examines open source and easily accessible methods of employing these resources, connecting GIS data to BIM systems to create customizable design solutions optimized for sustainable development. 1 This paper focuses on the application of environmental data and the adaptation and expansion of an existing open source WikiHouse platform. Currently it is a global, open-source, digitally de-centralized small home system, which is fairly autonomous; i.e., it has few connections to its specific environment and site. It can be customized for size, but lacks the ability to leverage environmental data for optimized form modifications. The research adapts this system to various natural forces and conditions, creating a new wiki design methodology, which incorporates various open-source inputs to create a more sustainable, adaptive design solution that responds to natural environmental conditions.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Re-Architecting Practice 2018-09-29T15:11:13-04:00 George P. Dodds Jori A. Erdman <p>This paper is an excerpt from ongoing research, started singly by George Dodds, University of Tennessee, in 2015, and developed jointly by Dodds and Jori Erdman, Louisiana State University beginning in 2016. It is part of a larger monograph and symposium project with a projected end-date during the 2019-20 academic year.</p> <p>The practice of Duvall Decker Architects has been taking shape across two decades in the relative remove of Jackson, Mississippi’s Fondren neighborhood. Duvall and Decker have embraced paradigms of the urban south, combining program, materiality, and landscape to create projects subtle and complex in a practice that is innovative in its structure and situ. Their work represents a sea change in convential practice; they are helping to redefine the nature of practice, and the relationship of the individual practice to the collective discipline. The surpluses they provide include regional specificity, socially-charged agendas, and real-time maintenance to ensure a building’s salubrity, just-in-time manufacturing facilities, education programs for contractors, and civically-minded project development. To varying degrees, all represent a re-architecting of practice, none of which is explained away by the emergence of digital technology. Our focus is the Bennie G. Thompson Academic &amp; Civil Rights Center at Tougaloo College in Jackson. Along with their innovative rethinking of public housing (Jackson Housing Authority Mid-City Housing Project), this project highlights themes and strategies common to their oeuvre. For example, Thompson Center is informed by their deep appreciation for a reading of the history of the campus. Varied interpretations of the ubiquitous southern porch, striking site strategies. inventive detailing, and a limited material palette, permeate their work. But it the firm’s continued involvement on the site beyond the design and construction of the singular building that bears further study. The work of Duvall Decker represents not simply an expansion of normative practice; it is a re-architecting of practice: a 21st century, multi-valent practice wherein design intersects with clients, culture, and construction, producing works and ways of working that suggest a refiguration of the profession.</p> <p>In all that gargantuan paradise of the fourth-rate there is not a single picture gallery worth going into, …or a single public monument that is worth looking at, or a single workshop devoted to the making of beautiful things. …[W]hen you come to critics, musical composers, painters, sculptors, architects and the like—there is not even a bad one between the Potomac mud flats and the Gulf. …In all these fields the South is an awe-inspiring blank.... H. L. Mencken, “The Sahara of the Bozart” New York Evening Mail (1917)</p> <p>What is true of the geographical elements in building was even more true of the social conditions. Half the misdemeanors of architecture in every age are the result of an attempt to fit rational structures into an irrational social pattern. ...[I]n its larger applications, the quality of architecture is governed by the conventions and ideals of the community: architects will do things in one way when human values are uppermost…. Hence the international style cannot be a mechanical stereotype: it cannot take a form that was beautifully adapted to the geographic and social environment of Birmingham and apply it, without modification to Bombay; it cannot even take a form that was finely adapted to Birmingham and apply it blindly to Montgomery. Louis Mumford, The Architecture of the South (1941)</p> <p>Architecture as building is always political, because it literally embodies a mixture of state interests and clan interests.... The sliding scale between collective and individual ambitions becomes frozen in structure; architecture is therefore always a snapshot of a political climate.” Jack Self, “Does politics have any place in architecture? The Architectural Review (30 September, 2015)</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Creating community 2018-09-29T15:17:28-04:00 Lyndsey Deaton <p>This paper describes resident’s perspectives on social capital in the context of tiny-house villages intended to mitigate housing insecurity. Three development models (one grassroots, one hybrid, and one traditional) are compared to understand how the architecture supports each village’s resocialization goal. Using an inductive framework, this study is founded on 21 interviews with residents and staff at each community as well as my observations as an Architect. I found common themes of stability, cleanliness, belonging, leadership, and community politics across all communities, which highlight key social dynamics that inform the resocialization process.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Finding Perfection in Imperfection 2018-09-29T15:20:08-04:00 Ahmed K. Ali Patricia Kio <p>The United States’ manufacturing industry generates approximately 7.6 billion tons of nonhazardous solid waste each year, a significant portion of which is either recyclable or reusable. Emerging ecosystem concepts such as cradle-to-cradle, design for disassembly, sustainable manufacturing, and most recently circular economy, are promoting the reusing or recycling of non-hazardous industrial waste. Empirical evidence suggests that there are significant economic, environmental, and social benefits to reusing industrial waste rather than recycling it. This paper presents, discusses and synthesis five speculative case studies in designing exterior building skins using standard automobile stamping by-products. The goal of the design experiment was to transform the linear approach in making building components, particularly, exterior metal skins and cladding systems, to a closed-loop approach, which ensures multi-dimensional economic, social, and environmental benefits. The results of the study are expected to aid in the reduction of energy used for extracting new materials and change the focus of the current waste management practices in the manufacturing industry from conventional recycling to creative reuse. The imperfection of the manufacturing industrial waste despite optimization measures, and the aging of zinc (patina) can both be transformed into novel unconventional architectural products.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Spanglish Turn 2018-09-29T15:21:57-04:00 Gustavo Leclerc <p>The relevance of contemporary architectural design is intrinsically dependent upon it’s being instep with the aesthetic and spatial sensibilities of its time. Within Southern California, one of the most dramatic contemporary influences on aesthetic and spatial sensibilities is that of Latinization, in particular, Mexican/Chicano cultural practices. This research speculates on the emergence of an architectural hybridity autochthonous to Los Angeles informed by a theoretical framework termed the Spanglish Turn. The development of this framework begins with an analysis of visual arts, and material and popular culture in Los Angeles. Drawing upon a theory of language called systemic functional linguistic theory (or functional grammar), we adapt this system of analysis to work as a translating system to an architectural context. This strategy aims to ‘stretch’ the relationship between architecture and specific forms of popular and material culture by speculating on the behavior informing them. Then guided by a formulation of this emergent spatial logic, it looks for tangential inroads and alternative patterns to begin to articulate a new ‘grammar of translation’ for LA’s popular and visual culture into the realm of architecture.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An ecology of daylighting 2018-09-29T15:26:33-04:00 Mary Guzowski <p>This paper explores how an ecological approach to daylighting can give form to architecture while simultaneously defining the building performance and human experience. A case study profile of Mario Cucinella Architects’ recently completed ARPAE (Regional Agency for the Prevention, Environment and Energy) Headquarters in Ferrara, Italy considers the balance between the practical and the poetic, as well as the aesthetic dimensions of ecological daylighting design. Over the past decade, the “science of daylighting,” has matured as practitioners and building science researchers have continued to demonstrate measurable benefits of daylighting in the areas of energy savings, carbon and greenhouse gas reductions, increased human comfort, and improved productivity and health. These developments have benefited architects and designers to more effectively integrate daylight with other design and performance issues. Yet, with the promise of scientific and analytical advances, there also lies a risk of too narrowly focusing on daylight parameters that are measurable and empirically defined. An analytic perspective on daylighting design needs to be balanced with the qualitative and experiential dimensions of natural light. The ARPAE project was developed using design methods and tools for thoughtfully integrating daylighting performance with human experience in relation to place, seasons, and time. The paper investigates an ecological approach to daylighting design using interviews and evaluation of qualitative and quantitative assessments provided by the architect to consider the potential of daylighting to simultaneously shape the building and subsequent human experience and design performance.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mount Auburn Cemetery in Baltimore 2018-09-29T15:30:59-04:00 Samia Rab Kirchner Farzaneh Soflaei <p>Urban open spaces play a vital role in the social life of city residents. This paper presents a taxonomy of urban spaces and explores the role of cemeteries as an open space that may enhance the social sustainability of neighborhoods. As urban infrastructure, cemeteries provide a resting space for departed citizens and express historical continuity for evolving communities. As superstructure, cemeteries offer spaces for contemplation and chance encounters for the living, contributing to historically-grounded civic identity. Baltimore's Mount Auburn Cemetery was established in 1861 as a rural burial space on farmland outside the city and in time grew into a complex and evolving “City of the Dead”. It is more than a place of rest for the dead and expresses the importance of ritual and ceremony over form and related Euro-American concepts of perpetual maintenance (Jones, 2011). Recognizing its uniqueness as an African American cultural landscape, this paper presents a socially sustainability framework for the revitalization of this privately-owned cemetery into a public memorial park taking into account the full life cycle of urban communities. It also posits the role of universities in developing Partnership and Revitalization Plans through community engagement with varied stakeholders to take care of these resting places and design spaces for meditative contemplation for the living.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Net Zero and Resilience 2018-09-29T15:33:53-04:00 Ming Hu <p>Two important contemporary domains in the built environment are “resilience” and “net zero,” both of which are associated with high-performance design and have their origin in the field of ecology. The energy efficiency and performance of buildings are common measuring indices accepted by multiple fields. The ultimate goal of net zero building has become a hot trend, and off-grid building has become the ultimate “high-performance” standard. Another emerging index is to measure and improve the resilience of buildings, capturing performance attributes such as environment, safety, durability, and functionality. Resilience has a broad range of implications in the built environment, such as recovery time during extreme events, emergency supply storage in buildings, off-grid/stand-alone potential, injuries during construction, and selfdeconstruction capability (in order to minimize damage to the surrounding area in extreme events). Each of these categories uses different metrics. This paper provides an overview of research activities on the net zero building movement and the concept of resilience in the building and construction industry over the past 40 years. The purpose of this overview is to determine the main research areas within each domain and gain insight into the size of the different areas; explore how these research areas relate to each other and their intellectual origins; identify the most influential studies and thinkers; and identify potential research gaps. Conclusions are drawn relating to the major difference between the development of the net zero movement and resilience theory in the built environment and their respective relation to their ecological origin.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A cultural paradox and the double shift of the housing typologies in the Arabic Gulf area 2018-09-29T15:44:57-04:00 Apostolos Kyriazis Ayesha Zahid Shafaq Qamar <p>Abu Dhabi’s transition from a fishing village to a contemporary capital city in less than 50 years is more than remarkable. Its rapid growth, fueled by oil revenues and combined with a real estate frenzy is reflected into its urban morphology. The origin and evolution of Abu Dhabi’s urban grid has swung between political pragmatism and modernist influences of Doxiadis’ master plans in the region. However, its architecture is highly diverse in terms of stylistic approaches, with little influence from the rich Arabic vernacular heritage. Especially when it comes to housing, Abu Dhabi and most of the neighboring cities in the GCC area have been monopolized by the presence of the “western villa” typology. This phenomenon is poorly analyzed in related literature.</p> <p>This paper will present the preliminary results of two ongoing parallel undergraduate research programs with regards to the cultural clash that perseveres in forging the urban scape: the western villa, its properties manifesting an absolute contrast to the prevailing Islamic values and daily patterns. It will also attempt to identify the underlying resonate.</p> <p>In addition to that, there will be an analysis with regards to an attempt from the urban planning authorities towards a second shift back to the neglected principles of the Arabic urbanism and traditional architecture, for achieving sustainable targets. Indeed, Culture was recently introduced as the fourth pillar to the local sustainability accreditation system (called “Estidama”), in a parallel attempt to reinstitute a national identity. To that direction, both research and academic studios’ work have already started producing a promising outcome that would definitely affect the urban environment and improve its spatial and social parameters.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Trends in the application of CFD for architectural design 2018-09-29T15:48:57-04:00 Soo Jeong Jo James Jones Elizabeth Grant <p>This paper is an overview of the trends in the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in architectural design. This paper aims to identify the current trends of CFD-related research in the architectural field and questions how CFD may interact with architectural design practice. To achieve the research objectives, a thorough literature review was conducted with two steps. First, relevant data were collected from journals and conference proceedings. The collected data were categorized according to the detailed topic of literature, such as designing HVAC and building envelope systems, evaluating indoor climates, simulating outdoor airflow, and developing early-stage designs. Based on the developed categories, we studied the trends of the CFD-related paper submissions for the International Building Performance Simulation Association (IBPSA) international conferences from 1997 to 2015. The results showed that the amount of CFD-related research has been constantly growing due to the increase of case-based research, and because the design process itself (including decision-making) has been an active research topic recently. Through in-depth literature review and trend analysis, we found that CFD-related research has been evolving in interaction with architectural design practice, and that the boundary of the research has expanded from evaluation of built environments to include the early stages of design.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Street Lighting and Public Safety 2018-09-29T16:03:03-04:00 Jae Yong Suk Rebecca Walter <p>While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Daylighting beyond Instrumentality and Dynamic Metrics 2018-09-29T16:06:52-04:00 Sadiqa Al Awadh Ihab Elzeyadi <p>The relationship between sustainable architecture and daylighting design has suffered from a limited approach where architects reduce daylighting to an instrumental quality and objective metrics related to daylighting quantities - devoid of its relationship to aesthetics, daylighting quality, and subjective impacts on space perception and indoor environmental quality. In design practice, architects and engineers place most emphasis on the visible transmittance of glazing and the quantity of daylight rather than spectral properties and the wavelengths that affect physiological response to light. This trend prioritizes daylight’s dynamic metrics as the basis for green building rating systems’ credits criteria. Seldom are other qualities of daylight, such as the biological effective wavelengths from different spectral power distributions or the impacts of daylighting on occupant’s mood and behavior considered.</p> <p>Non-visual benefits of daylight that affect well-being include: regulating the circadian biological clock, hormones (melatonin, cortisol, etc.), body temperature, heart rate, mood, stress, and depression. These are impacted by different characteristics of daylight such as luminance, spectral power distribution, color rendering index, correlated color temperature, duration of exposure, directionality, dynamics, and timing. Though architects often overlook the energy in the non-visible portions of the light spectrum, it must be considered in the overall appraisal of daylighting systems.</p> <p>In this paper, we examine a meta-analysis of previous assessments on the relationship between occupant’s health and well-being in relation to metrics, certification systems, and the attributes that guide their interactions. We explore the importance and influence of interdisciplinary research in addressing issues of daylighting design for sustainable architecture, which affect people on an individual, community, and global scale. The paper concludes with frameworks relating health effective light to appropriate metrics which will guide future daylighting design processes for sustainable architecture.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Infusing Technology Driven Design Thinking in Architectural Education 2018-09-29T16:09:13-04:00 Madlen Simon Ming Hu <p>This paper narrates two case studies on technology driven design thinking-based education methodologies in an architecture program. The first case study course focuses on a design/build studio course in which the client, the campus performing arts center, incubated the studio in their production facility to mentor the students as they created a new cafe for the facility. Students engaged with the full spectrum of the design-thinking process, interviewing theatre-goers in the empathize mode, seeking the right problem in the define mode, generating alternative concepts in the ideate mode, rapidly prototyping with computeraided design and manufacturing technology, testing resulting prototypes on users on site, learning from feedback, and cycling back through the design-thinking process, evolving the prototypes to higher and higher levels of resolution in each iteration. The second case study course integrates BIM (building information technology) into a traditional large technical lecture course, using the technology to overcome challenges caused by the size and mixed levels of students, meanwhile provide hands-on experience which is typically very difficult to implement in a large lecture course. These two pedagogical approaches intended to integrate fast-changing technologies into architectural education while simultaneously creating a novel learning environment for students. The authors reflect upon the results of the two case study courses, proposing recommendations which could be useful for educators and institutions contemplating the potential for technology to change student experience</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cyber-innovation in the STEM classroom 2018-09-30T12:38:36-04:00 Winifred E. Newman Tahar Messadi Andrew Braham Darin Nutter Shahin Vassigh <p>This paper presents the formative evaluation of an ongoing NSF-sponsored research project in classroom innovation using augmented reality (AR) to enhance STEM education. It will also discuss the relevance of AR in engineering and architecture research in understanding complex data sets in sustainability. Exposing students to advances in digital modeling, data visualization and performative software is preparing them for new pathways for decision-making in the AEC professions. Recent research shows that Technology Mediated Learning Environments (interacting with computer-based tools) can enhance learning. Augmented Reality (AR) or the ability to augment the real world environment with computer-generated information is bringing a new dimension to learning and designing using multiple data streams. The project objectives were to 1) explore opportunities and obstacles presented by AR in the classroom, 2) look at the impact of various strategies to integrate AR, and 3) contribute to research on how people learn using technology-mediated environments by developing a better understanding of the various attributes of these technologies.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rewriting Architecture 2018-11-08T13:34:07-05:00 Domenico Chizzoniti Flavio Menici <p>ABSTRACT: The study here displayed deals with the relationship between project and landscape through the technique of rewriting in contexts and conditions of emergency where war events compromise and mutilate the architectural heritage. In particular, the rewriting process is here identified as a generative technique capable to convert a mutilated structure, not efficiently recoverable with conservation and restoration techniques, into a general syntagmatic element or into a group of syntagmatic elements ascribable to the original one through a transformation process of the landscape and natural environment. The architecture of the collapsed cities damaged by the war represents a preferential experimental field. That situation leads to reflect not only on the generative conditions of the urban structure’s elements, but it is also fundamental to understand the idea beneath them, working in continuity with the transformation of its physical structure. In the production of the city’s forms, the element that intervenes in the philosophical and aesthetic field in the creation process is action that balances the creative gesture between what was and gives it back coherently to what will be, in its physical substance and in its inclination to transform itself in something else, through the fundamental recognition of an existing structure, formally composed even if compromised. In other words, this rewriting process entails the recognition of the current architectural heritage in order to assume it critically, trying to give back the invariant elements that characterized the permanence as an incorruptible factor of continuity in time. A tangible example of application concerns some areas subjected to war conflicts, which have caused a huge damage to the architectural heritage of cities. The developing of a critic reconstruction methodology in these contexts represents a fundamental need for the safeguard of the architectural heritage and cultural identity of populations involved in war conflicts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Cultural heritage, architectural reconstruction, critical urban transformation</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impacts of Vertical Greening System (VGS) on daylight quantity and quality in buildings 2018-11-08T13:40:32-05:00 Anupam Dutt Satumane Jae Yong Suk <p>ABSTRACT: With the efforts to reduce building energy consumptions and to improve occupant comfort, use of natural light in buildings has become inevitable. Buildings of today have large glazing on their facades to allow sunlight into building interiors. When adequately introduced, natural light provides numerous benefits ranging from energy saving to occupant comfort. However, natural light can also cause thermal and visual discomfort to occupants by uneven distributions of illuminations or extremely high luminance in occupant's field of view. Vertical greening system (VGS) on exterior building facades can be utilized to control the amount of sunlight in building interiors. Multi-angled reflective and translucent surfaces of plants reflect and diffuse direct sunlight so that appropriate amount of daylight can be introduced in buildings. In order to verify potential daylighting benefits of VGS, physical experimentation was performed. Three different vines that are widely used in VGS were chosen and their influences on the quality and quantity of natural light were investigated. A wooden cube box was built to simulate building interior space and fitted with an acrylic panel to simulate a south-facing window. The vines are mounted on a metal trellis with a square grid of 6-inches to mimic the natural growth of the vine and installed 6inches away from the window. The model was then mounted on a Heliodon and tested for different times in the year using the Sun as a light source. Lighting characteristics such as illuminance, luminance, discomfort glare and light color temperature were measured and analyzed. The findings show that discomfort glare levels were greatly decreased with the help of the vines as vertical illuminance levels were lowered and luminance distributions became more even by reflecting and diffusing direct sun penetrations. It was also observed that illuminance level and discomfort glare reduction are not only affected by the physical characteristics of plants. They are also affected by sun positions such as altitude and azimuth angles in different times and dates of the year.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Vertical greening system, Daylighting, Vines, Discomfort glare, HDR Photography.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Architecture of college union buildings and the changing meaning of the campus “living room” 2018-11-08T13:57:09-05:00 Clare Robinson <p>ABSTRACT: Student unions buildings are a window into the architectural and social history of college campuses. Designed to support student government and normative leisure activities outside of college classrooms, the buildings have served as instruments of social education and student culture since the invention of the building type in the late nineteenth century. With few precedents, architects of early student union buildings in North America took cues from private social clubs to shape and arrange spaces for reading, games, club meetings, and cultural events, such as recitals and dances. As the Association of College Unions (ACU) matured into an influential national organization, it augmented the most significant architectural elements and purpose of the buildings, and guided the planning and design of buildings nationwide through publications and appointed expert consultants. Student union proponents and architects regularly referred to the campus buildings as “living rooms” throughout the twentieth century, invoking familiarity and domesticity for an otherwise public campus building. This paper makes extensive use of primary sources to depict and interpret the relationships among architecture, culture, and meaning by wedding methods in architectural history to methods in conceptual history. Specifically, it combines the close examination of college union architecture with the social and cultural intentions of the buildings during three distinct different periods in college union history to chart the persistent use yet changing meaning of the phrase the campus “living room” and other related metaphors. By analyzing the interdependence of architectural design and meaning, this study broadens the role of architecture in humanities research while also arguing for the knowledgeable use of metaphors in contemporary architectural practice.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: [student union, history, campus living room, home, art of living]</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Real-time measurement of building envelopes to improve U-value characterization 2018-11-08T13:46:55-05:00 Daniel Chung <p>Abstract Approximately 40% of total US energy consumption in 2016 was attributed to commercial and residential buildings. In comparison with other building systems, energy is most heavily consumed by systems regulating thermal comfort. Thus, building energy consumption is strongly related to the thermal performance of building envelopes. Architects, engineers and owners have utilized energy modeling and simulations as a way to predict future energy consumption for new and existing buildings. Energy models are also used to evaluate the change in potential energy consumption when comparing multiple design options. Most building energy modeling software utilizes material properties databases for individual envelope components and calculates an assembly overall heat transfer coefficient, known as the U-value. For historic buildings the use of materials from existing databases may be inaccurate, since the actual assembly and materials may be unknown or may not have been previously tested. Low-cost non-destructive in-situ testing can be performed to determine actual U-values for existing building envelopes. Heat flux sensors, thermocouples and air temperature sensors can be used to measure real-time heat flow through building envelopes. These measurements can be used to calculate the transient U-value of the envelope assembly. Although most databases provide a static U-value for an assembly, the actual U-value of assemblies can vary over time in relation to indoor and outdoor temperatures. When measuring in-situ U-values, time averaging can be used to develop a baseline for energy modeling purposes. This paper presents research regarding the determination of in-situ U-values for two historic buildings using heat-flux sensors and time-averaging methods. The results of the study are compared with typical database U-values and show that there is a significant range and difference between the in-situ values and those that might be typically used in energy models. Energy simulations were performed for both the typical and in-situ cases to understand the difference and impact on predicted energy consumption.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: energy modeling, simulation, in-situ testing, heat flux, U-value</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The transformation of a Lisbon urban block 2018-11-08T13:53:23-05:00 Rui Justo <p>ABSTRACT: The city is a dynamic object in permanent evolution, which makes its physical changes a fatality, justified by the constant need for man to reinvent his urban environment. It means that the city urban form is made from an adaptation effort between the need for change and the preservation of the existing and legible urban matrix. The urban block is the physical object that best represents this extraordinary dynamic based on the constant and asynchronous movement of the elements that conform it. However, it is due to this dynamic, aligned with an absence of time perception, that the urban block has lost space as a defining element of the urban form. The loss of influence in the city design process, discernible in many of the urban conceptions of the twentieth century, matches with periods of greater formal uncertainty and urban solutions that deny one of the most important design tools available: time. To refuse the urban block is refusing the time, the safest place where we can read the intentions that guided the evolution of the city, where the urban block has repeatedly proven its ability to adapt to several types of buildings and the changing urban and architectural models. Thus, this study uses the city of Lisbon and one of its most representative urban blocks – the old Monumental Cinema Theater – to reveal the importance and usefulness of reading and designing the city with time. Methodologically, the work offers a morphological and diachronic reading of the urban block, exploring over time its different evolution processes and formal oscillations. Complementary, it intents to reveal in a more operative approach how time could be an essential adviser in the city design process. Designing city with time is searching for new compositional solutions that are not only compatible with the actual needs of urban living but, also, solutions capable of evolving and responding to future needs.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: urban block, time, transformation, urban form, Lisbon</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Diagram in Continuum 2018-11-08T13:55:29-05:00 Hayri Dortdivanlioglu <p>ABSTRACT: The modern concept of the diagram has evolved in various disciplines and professions in terms of both inscriptive and performative mediums since the 1950’s. As a powerful abstract concept, the diagram shows dichotomous characteristics; while the inscriptive mode of the diagram is seen as representational, concrete, and reductive, the performative mode of the diagram is seen as generative, abstract, and proliferative. This paper compares the production and the role of the diagram respectively in representative and generative mediums to give an insight into how diagrams embody these dichotomous modes. To do so, first, it studies the concept of the diagram in the works of two French philosophers: Bruno Latour and Gilles Deleuze. On the one hand, for Latour, the inscriptive aspect of the diagram becomes prominent as a tool to render scientific processes or objects onto an abstract representation, which acts as a concrete, irrefutable, and referential object. On the other hand, the Deleuzian concept of the diagram is not representational or visual at all, but it is still real. According to Deleuze, diagrams are sets of relations of forces that define virtuality of assemblages as a space of possibilities. The modern concept of diagrams in the realm of architecture has evolved in between this dichotomy. After giving insights into the contrasting concepts of the diagram, this paper studies three different approaches to the diagram in architectural praxes: Analytical diagram in Sejima’s works, textual diagram in Eisenman’s works, and material diagram in Spuybroek’s works. This paper identifies these three praxes as intermediary stages in between Latour’s and Deleuze’s concepts of the diagram. In conclusion, it shows the dichotomy of the diagram as a continuum in architectural praxes, characterized at one end by the inscriptive mode and at the other end by the performative mode of the diagram.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Architecture, Diagram, Form, Representation, Generation</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Creating Our Own Ladder to Climb 2018-11-08T13:59:38-05:00 Courtney Crosson <p>ABSTRACT: This paper addresses the pedagogical process of teaching architects to operate within a system of limited resources – by having them design the regulatory game to manage those resources. In 2015, the president of the University of Arizona (UA) signed a commitment to reach carbon neutrality by 2050. In 2016, an upper-level architecture studio was planned in partnership with university administration to create a roadmap for the campus to achieve this neutrality commitment. The studio pedagogy was structured using the climate stabilization triangle method, originally pioneered by scientists Stephen Pacala and Robert Socolow, co-directors of the Princeton’s Climate Mitigation Initiative. Pacala and Socolow assert that rather than advancements from the lab bench or computational model, forthcoming answers to global warming will be provided by those that coordinate the implementation of a portfolio of existing solutions (Pacala 2004). Students created a climate stabilization triangle for the 2050 campus by projecting the future escalation of campus scope 1-3 carbon production and then coordinated existing mitigation strategies to reach a zero target. Each implementation given by the students had a stated funding strategy, policy outcome, and corresponding physical outcome for the campus. The UA is currently integrating the work as a chapter in the campus master plan for 2018. The paper argues that by designing their own ladder of regulations, students learn to dissect why policy exists, connect physical outcomes with policy mandates, and understand their work as an architect within the complexity of actors and objectives impacting global warming. Architects can play a central role in the growing imperative of climate planning if methodologically trained with the current research methods and analytical tools to address this challenge.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: net zero, climate stabilization triangle, wedge diagram, carbon neutrality, campus master plan</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Materials Choices Matter 2018-11-08T14:02:03-05:00 Ash Ragheb <p>ABSTRACT: Since environmental sustainability becomes a central concern in the design process in both architectural education and practice, research on quantifying buildings impact on the environment is growing worldwide. Although many designers seek LEED certification, some claim their buildings to be sustainable based only on certification. In fact, unless a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study is carried out, it is difficult to quantify and evaluate the environmental burden a particular building, or a construction material, has on its surrounding environment. The study method employs a quantitative LCA approach in calculating these impacts. The paper models an office building over a service life of 60 years and its implications on the environment from cradle to grave. It also quantifies and compares the total impacts this building has throughout this life span. The case building is located in Michigan in the U.S. where steel construction is the dominant method of construction for commercial type. The building is a 1-story LEED certified building that uses a geothermal HVAC system and has many sustainable materials used. The study calculates the environmental footprint of the building per unit area (impact to air, water, and land). The study discusses the importance of setting metrics beyond LEED to choose more sustainable materials based on their environmental impact. To narrow down to the critical materials, the study provides an assessment to which building component (structure, enclosure, floors, roofs) contribute the most to the total building impacts where the worst burden and critical materials could be identified and replaced. The outcome highlights where LEED rating system may fall short regarding the best materials alternatives to use and in which component of the building. This contributes to reduced total impact through selecting these alternatives based on the least damage to the environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Environmental Profiling, Impact Assessment, Life Cycle Assessment, LEED.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The tale of two mosques 2018-11-08T14:04:48-05:00 İrem Öz Alexandra Staub <p>On October 2008, the biggest mosque in Germany at the time was opened in Duisburg’s Marxloh district. In addition to its size, what distinguishes this building from other mosques in Germany was the lack of protests against the construction of this building. On the other hand, in Cologne, just 40 minutes away from Duisburg, the construction of the Cologne Central Mosque was faced with so many disputes that its opening has delayed by 10 years, opening in June, 2017 in spite of the fact that both project were started around the same time. This paper presents two stories: the success story of the DITIB commissioned Marxloher Merkez Mosque and problems surrounding the Cologne Central Mosque. Through this analysis and a theoretical framework based on the notion of visibility, the aim is to investigate the factors that contribute to the successful reception of the mosque by the public through an exhaustive contextual analysis. I theorize that three factors enabled this positive reception of the mosque. These factors are: (1) the architecture and local context, which contributes to the visibility of the mosque (2) urban design process of the mosque, which plays a role bringing different actors together and (3) the politics of visibility which was framed through the self-presentation and the reception of the mosque by the media. I argue that although the Marxloher Merkez Mosque project compared to the Cologne Central Project is perceived as a successful project that managed to overcome the risks associated with social conflict, this “Miracle” of Duisburg only provides social cohesion on the surface and leads to “self-orientalism” and further alienation.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Turkish diaspora in Germany, Cologne Central Mosque, Marxloher Merkez Mosque</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Being vulnerable 2018-11-08T14:06:54-05:00 Bhaswar Mallick <p>The digital turn revolutionizing ways of construing, analyzing and disseminating information has brought the focus on architectural techniques – how they inform, generate and communicate. A globalized world is also increasingly influenced by the same agendas, publications and images, while being mindful of a visual bias, misrepresentation, and overt reliance. As such it is essential now, more than ever before, to define the scope of architectural techniques as an instrument driving the design process and representing positions of architecture and architects in society. If Zaha Hadid is a relevant architect famous for her typical drawing techniques generating a unique architecture, the realization of Rosenthal Center of Contemporary Arts at Cincinnati established her credibility for realizing in built form the excitement her drawings promised. This paper aims at revealing the ambiguities, triumphs and compromises, that architectural techniques bear witnesses to, through Zaha Hadid’s Contemporary Arts Center project.</p> <p>The research stems from a narrative commentary of the design process, as witnessed through the various drawings, paintings, physical and digital models published in relation to the project. Each of these representations, in each stage were described, and their relations to the immediately previous and later representation commented. As a written account describing the evolution of the design emerged, it was compared with the published objectives of the clients at various stages of the process, and the architect’s justifications published after completion. A visit to the building was undertaken, and an account of the experience was compared to the intentions and achievements claimed. Ethical dilemmas will be revealed in the process that show the vulnerabilities of the Architect and her technique, and strategies that she adopts to accommodate the same. It will show how design processes have an inherent ethical vulnerability, and how Hadid’s admittance of the issue and her response to that is instructive.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Globalization, Digital turn, Ethics, Instrumentality, Design process.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A phenomenological study of the alternative appropriation of urban space by parkour practitioners 2018-11-08T14:08:54-05:00 Forrest Masterman Paige <p>ABSTRACT: Parkour is an urban sport where practitioners utilize natural body movements such as running, jumping, and climbing to overcome obstacles in the urban environment efficiently and creatively. This phenomenological study investigates parkour practitioners and their alternative appropriations of urban space, defining the essence of their lived experiences. Utilizing the interview as the primary data collection method, parkour practitioners throughout the Midwest were questioned to define the essence of their collective lived experiences. The purpose of this study is to understand the contemporary perspective through which parkour practitioners view and experience the urban environment to contribute to the conversation between architecture, parkour, and urban space. The significance of this study is to understand this emerging usage of the city, identifying which urban conditions facilitate these movements, informing designers of which qualities and conditions in the city make these appropriations possible so that they may effectively incorporate this type of expression into urban spaces. Employing a qualitative phenomenological research methodology that is built upon the writings of Lefebvre, Borden, Merleau-Ponty, Pallasmaa, Serres, Latour, Angel, Csikszentmihalyi, and Lamb, this investigation addresses the main research question: What defines the essence of the lived experience that parkour practitioners have when they alternatively appropriate urban space? An important outcome of this study was the identification of certain urban conditions and elements which make urban spaces more ideal for parkour movements. Designers can utilize these examples to successfully incorporate the movements of parkour practitioners into urban spaces, giving them a multiplicity of different uses which go beyond their normative functions, expanding provided social functionality. Understanding this alternative perspective that parkour practitioners have on the function of urban space has the potential to redefine how these spaces are fundamentally considered, understood, and conceived by designers and how these spaces are perceived, utilized, and experienced by urban communities.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Alternative, Appropriation, Parkour, Phenomenology, Urban Space</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nipmuc Empowerment by Design 2018-11-08T14:11:11-05:00 Ray K Mann <p>ABSTRACT: Public-interest design pioneers Lisa Abendroth and Bryan Bell have articulated the need for "creatively using and devising strategies to solve problems that often push the boundaries of conventional practice." (Abenroth/Bell, 2016) One of these problems is the persistent "black box" moment between community information-gathering and design production. The focus of this study is about empowering individuals and communities through a design-integrated planning process, so that they become full participants throughout the procedure in their own cultural production. Effective techniques need to be explicitly described and shared at a granular level, with detailed descriptions of and analysis about the multiple roles of design thinking and making in the empowerment process. I have been working with the Nimpuc Native Americans of central Massachusetts to develop such a process as we work towards the dream of establishing a Nipmuc cultural center. We seek not only to create a building/site that embodies their cultural and environmental values in both old and new ways, but to do in a process that will both help bring together the divided Nipmuc community and enabling it to move forward on shared goals. I will argue that design can take on a myriad of manifestations as “instruments” to play an integral role in eliciting hidden information and exciting response, as well as serving to enact narratives and become an engine of collective memory. I will also demonstrate the benefits of tapping into knowledge opportunities outside the design milieu. Methods described are entirely qualitative, relying on non-scientific "experiments" derived through design thinking, and using natural observation, subjective analysis and interpretation to assess their impact. The outcomes include greater confidence to participate and take on ideation and leadership roles, and various workshops getting turned into recurrent annual events.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEY WORDS: empowerment, design instruments, culture, Nipmuc, body language</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A study of validation on the current POE method by using a case study in southern California 2018-11-08T14:18:47-05:00 Kyeongsuk Lee Joon-Ho Choi Jonty Pretzer Marc Schiler Selwyn Ting Heidi Creighton Kameron Beeks Brian Berg Staci Ashcraft <p>ABSTRACT: Post-occupancy evaluation (POE) is an architectural building evaluation tool that aims to improve indoor environmental quality and building performance using comparative metrics. POE has been performed to develop a better quality of human life through improving user satisfaction, productivity, and better matching of building design functions and occupants’ needs. Despite the limitations of POE research due to its significant dependence on subjective user satisfaction surveys. researchers have developed methods that combine environmental datasets that integrate an occupant's satisfaction with real IEQ data. While these efforts have enhanced POE methodology, it still is limited by one-time data collection that is unlikely to adequately take varying degrees of human environmental perceptions into consideration in a manner that is consistant and reliable. Nevertheless, what distinguishes this study is the use of advanced POE testing, which uses multiple data collection methodologies to validate the current POE method and identify the potential necessity of an improved method. A modern office in Southern California was chosen as a testbed office to conduct plural occupant satisfaction surveys and on-site measurements were simultaneously made during two months. A statistical analysis of the aggregated data was conducted with consideration of various categories such as time differences and human factors. The result of this analysis revealed that the occupants experienced different levels of environmental satisfaction at different times even though environmental conditions at their workstations remained consistent, or only marginally changed. In addition, human factors, such as age and gender, indicated a significant relationship between occupant satisfaction and changes in human IEQ perceptions. These findings suggest a comprehensive approach is recommended to diagnose current space diagnostics and to provide optimal design solutions that boost users’ well-being in a working environment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Environmental comfort; Occupant well-being; Data acquisition; Healthy environment; Human factor</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring spatial justice challenges in rural Mississippi 2018-11-08T14:20:51-05:00 Silvina Lopez Barrera <p>ABSTRACT: The poverty and food insecurity rates in Mississippi are the highest in the nation, 20.8% of people in Mississippi are living in poverty and 18.7% of Mississippi households were food insecure for the years 2014- 2016. This study identifies and explores spatial justice challenges in small towns in rural Mississippi, by examining the social-spatial implications of unequal access to resources and affordable housing through the lenses of spatial justice theory. It reviews existing literature exploring issues of food insecurity, housing inequality, and inequitable development in vulnerable rural communities and it highlights the need for a spatial justice approach in this state. This article critically examines literature on food deserts and geographical discrimination practice of redlining as an important barrier for minority populations in Mississippi to access to affordable housing and adequate housing quality. The goal of this literature review is to inform policymakers to consider innovative and inclusive ways for community development and development of infrastructure in vulnerable communities in the context of limited resources in rural Mississippi.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: spatial justice, small towns, food insecurity, housing inequality</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The “Tate Effect” on the South Bank 2018-11-08T14:22:52-05:00 Deirdre L. C. Hennebury <p>ABSTRACT: Opening in 2000, the Tate Modern presented a compelling type of museum building. Housed in a former power station, the industrial character of the original structure was maintained, even celebrated, in the conversion. In addition to providing much needed space for the Tate’s growing twentieth-century art collection, the transformation of the building into a museum of modern art was intended to have larger urban implications with the ambitious goal of stimulating regeneration in South Bank, “the Cultural Heart of London.” As a flagship of the South Bank’s Millennium Mile and directly linked to St. Paul’s Cathedral by the new London Millennium Footbridge, the Tate Modern would infuse culture and money into a depressed part of London. In the decade and a half since the publication of Richard Florida’s The Rise of the Creative Class and the opening of the Tate Modern, the role of culture in urban reimaging efforts has been exploited, debated, and problematized. This paper explores select exemplars of the spillover benefits of the Tate Modern’s success and positive externalities that produced modest and sometimes ephemeral installations that breathed new life and joy into the South Bank. Considered through the lens of educational reformer and philosopher John Dewey’s call to reposition art within the realm of the everyday, the Tate multiplier effect is considerable. In particular, works created within the Bankside Urban Forest framework, a collaboration-driven initiative of Better Bankside Business Improvement District, are foregrounded as remarkable and authentic examples of how a design framework can employ urban heritage, contemporary art and design, and ecological expertise to generate urban improvements at all scales. From these evidences, it is clear that the instrumentality of the museum is rightfully a strategy that should continue in public policy and museological discussions as governments attempt to curate architecture, heritage, and history in urban regeneration initiatives.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: museum, regeneration, multiplier effect, spillover benefits</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Alexander Houses x 7 2018-11-08T14:25:33-05:00 Chris Jarrett <p>ABSTRACT: In an age of increasing globalization, there is a rising need for affordable, livable and humane sub- and non-urban housing. The intent of this research is to uncover the principles, strategies, methods and material means of the Alexander Houses, seven mid-century modern houses in the low desert of the Coachella Valley in California, in an effort to re-establish novel solutions for addressing the need for durable, low-maintenance, economical and inspired housing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Prefabrication, Steel, Housing, Modern</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Discipline of Architecture and the Rights of Nature 2018-11-08T14:27:41-05:00 Erin Moore <p>ABSTRACT: The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris in 1948, stands unmatched as a common standard for global human rights. As the impacts of industrialization reinforce the dependence of humans on functioning ecosystems, it is fitting for the United Nations to take the lead in advancing dialogue on shared principles for the rights of nature. In 2016, the United Nations General Assembly initiated a dialogue on “harmony with nature,” a phrase chosen to describe ecological holism and described sometimes by “earth jurisprudence,” to describe legal frameworks for the rights of nature. The Expert’s Summary Report on that dialogue was presented to the General Assembly at its seventy-first session in September 2016 (United Nations, 2016). The Expert’s Summary Report includes perspectives from earth-centered law, ecological economics, education, holistic science, humanities, philosophy/ethics, theology, and the arts, media, design and architecture. Representatives from each of these disciplines were asked: What would the practice of the selected discipline look like from an earth jurisprudence perspective? What are approaches, obstacles, recommendations, and priorities for achieving earth jurisprudence?</p> <p>While harmony with nature is an ancient principle and while earth jurisprudence as a legal philosophy is gaining global traction, the inclusion of the discipline of architecture in such discussions is both new and significant. In this paper, I report on existing dialogues in the discipline of architecture that have bearing on this topic and then ask: What are ways that frameworks for the rights of nature or earth jurisprudence have the potential to shape the practice of architecture? In responding to this initial question, this paper offers a brief view on considering design processes that integrate fundamental rights of nature and offers speculation on the shape of a built environment that is rooted in these principles.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Architecture, Sustainability, Nature, Rights</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sustainable urban design with people in mind 2018-11-08T14:30:20-05:00 Dario Vanegas Mallika Bose <p>ABSTRACT: This paper provides a critical view of the Sustainable Urban Design Framework proposed by Nico Larco in 2015. It problematizes its embedded top-down/expert approach and argues for the use of the alternative understanding of sustainability as a social phenomenon proposed by the Circles of Sustainability as a theoretical reference. The paper proposes adjusting the framework in two ways: explicitly including social aspects of sustainability and including the temporal dimension of sustainability. The first one will help to overcome issues of index standardization on the one hand and to more closely connect with local contexts on the other. The second one will directly address issues of place-making and identity by embedding history, current conditions and future expectations of specific communities as fundamental elements for any urban intervention that strives for sustainability.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Social sustainability, Urban Design, Framework</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A conceptual framework to approach conservation of Indian modernist heritage 2018-11-08T14:39:30-05:00 Vaisali Krishna Kumar <p>ABSTRACT: Preservation community over the last fifty years have developed philosophical and technical competence in managing various cultural heritage. However, it is yet to come in terms with the challenges pertaining to Modernist architecture, the latest to come under the umbrella of ‘heritage’. Conserving Modernist Heritage involves many technical and philosophical challenges. Lack of recognition and protection, absence of a shared methodological approach, dearth of public appreciation, obsolescence in term of functionality, sustainability and adaptability are some of the challenges that needs to be tackled while dealing with built heritage of the Modernist era. The transplantation and development of modernist architectural principles in every country was deeply influenced by the socio-political and economic agenda of the country. Therefore, concepts of heritage conservation require to be flexible in interpretation and region specific with respect to Modernist heritage. A conceptual framework needs to be developed with full understanding of the socioeconomic, cultural and historical contexts of the region/country under study. This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework to determine appropriate conservation approach for Modernist Heritage in India. Modernist Heritage in India does not qualify the ‘age’ criteria defined by heritage legislations of the country and hence is not protected by the government. With the loss of one of its most significant and iconic modernist landmark, the need for an immediate framework becomes indispensable in India to recognize and protect the remaining significant Modernist heritage resources. The paper is based on a systematic literature review of pertinent sources on concepts such as heritage value assessment, community engagement, authenticity and its association with Indian Modernist heritage. The paper deduces that in order to develop an approach to recognize and protect Modernist Heritage of India, a collective understanding is critical, which involves three key dimensions: established/ existing frameworks, experts and local community.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Modernist Architecture, Cultural Heritage, India. Historic Preservation, Document Analysis</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rewriting Architecture 2018-11-08T14:41:52-05:00 Domenico Chizzoniti Flavio Menici <p>ABSTRACT: The study here displayed deals with the relationship between project and landscape through the technique of rewriting in contexts and conditions of emergency where war events compromise and mutilate the architectural heritage. In particular, the rewriting process is here identified as a generative technique capable to convert a mutilated structure, not efficiently recoverable with conservation and restoration techniques, into a general syntagmatic element or into a group of syntagmatic elements ascribable to the original one through a transformation process of the landscape and natural environment. The architecture of the collapsed cities damaged by the war represents a preferential experimental field. That situation leads to reflect not only on the generative conditions of the urban structure’s elements, but it is also fundamental to understand the idea beneath them, working in continuity with the transformation of its physical structure. In the production of the city’s forms, the element that intervenes in the philosophical and aesthetic field in the creation process is action that balances the creative gesture between what was and gives it back coherently to what will be, in its physical substance and in its inclination to transform itself in something else, through the fundamental recognition of an existing structure, formally composed even if compromised. In other words, this rewriting process entails the recognition of the current architectural heritage in order to assume it critically, trying to give back the invariant elements that characterized the permanence as an incorruptible factor of continuity in time. A tangible example of application concerns some areas subjected to war conflicts, which have caused a huge damage to the architectural heritage of cities. The developing of a critic reconstruction methodology in these contexts represents a fundamental need for the safeguard of the architectural heritage and cultural identity of populations involved in war conflicts.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Cultural heritage, architectural reconstruction, critical urban transformation</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Dealing with Remnants of Politics, Power and History in Germany 2018-11-08T14:43:28-05:00 Ulrike Altenmüller-Lewis <p>ABSTRACT: The link between place and identity is not stagnant or fixed. It changes over time, influenced by social and political changes and ethical developments, from one generation to another. What was important to remember (or commemorate) yesterday may not have the same significance tomorrow. What we see as right and just now may be viewed as wrong or obsolete in a decade or two. So, what do we do when the storyline changes? In our current political climate, the question about the validity of certain historic monuments, their context, their meaning for various groups and our handling of these at times uncomfortable monuments gained unexpected relevance. Suddenly the question becomes important what to do with these memories, with monuments and buildings that clearly reference a certain time or nationalistic expression and that today leave us with an uncomfortable aftertaste. This abbreviated version of the paper explores the questions posed above by looking at Germany as one example of where the people had to grapple with the role and impact of collective memory, of public monuments and architecture that are freighted with heavy past. German history since 1871 is filled with fractures of political, cultural and social orders that forced the definition and re-definition of what to remember and how to remember appropriately by its politicians and citizens. The paper will retrace the changes in significance and how authorities and the public dealt with buildings of historic significance in two locations of Berlin as examples from a larger range of buildings and monuments the author is investigating in context of the topic. They give an overview how uncomfortable monuments were treated in a country with turbulent past.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Berlin, architecture, symbolism, perception, monument, politics, history</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Health Design Research Innovation Project 2018-11-08T14:49:26-05:00 Diana Nicholas Elise Krespan Thanh M. Nguyen Samantha Stein Dylan Tracy Yvonne Michael <p>ABSTRACT: The Health Design Research Innovation Project (HDI) is a program of interdisciplinary research and coursework exploring urban health and environments through the processes of human-centered design leading to innovation. Supported by a local foundation, HDI is entering its third year of a four-year pilot and involves collaboration between design research and public health faculty. This work integrates social determinants of health into the consideration of design solutions for housing insecurity and urban living environments. Scale, economics, and resources are factors in the built environment that influence the health of a space, especially in urban settings. The faculty here have developed a research program, including an interdisciplinary course piloted spring 2016, which examines how Health and Design research inform innovative thinking for behavioral health in underserved communities, especially around topics such as eviction, shelter and wraparound services. This program is predicated on the struggle of a society with multifaceted health challenges. These challenges now require knowledge contributions from multiple disciplines (O’Campo 2012). The HDI Program seeks to challenge and train students to meet these new challenges.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Health Research, Social Justice Design, Advocacy, Housing Insecurity, Design Research, Culture of Health</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Space Syntax and Walkability Analysis in Support of Urban Design Decisions 2018-11-08T14:53:41-05:00 Pravin Bhiwapurkar <p>ABSTRACT: This research presents an application of the space syntax method to examine physical behavior in three urban neighborhoods – a compact downtown and two variations of sprawl development – in order to explore the link between environmental factors and physical activity. The environmental factors analyzed here include improved street connectivity, density, and mixed-use development. As a novel addition, this work also considered access to open spaces, parks, and trailheads, aspects unique to the study area. The first part of this research examined how compact urban areas, as compared to urban sprawl, influenced healthy behavior. The space syntax method was applied to explicate the morphological logic of the urban grid and quantify the built environment in relation to physical activity, including the street network characteristics of connectivity, integration, and depth. Second, this study addressed the comparative health and socio-cultural benefits of urban forms through measures of neighborhood completeness. This quantitative methodology was used to measure the level of density and amount of mixed-use in terms of walkability. As space syntax argues that more integrated streets are more likely to attract movement and visitors, the third part of this work evaluated the roles of various open spaces, parks, and trailheads within the mixed-use, dense development of a downtown, and how their respective locations might promote healthy behavior. Finally, this research concludes that increased residential density and retention of public open spaces of an existing single-use commercial downtown core, as well as easy access to parks and trailheads, could complement a walkable community design and suggest a healthy urban form. This work is relevant to existing urban neighborhoods and small urban communities looking to identify new development paradigms with regards to improved walkability and health promotive urban form.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Community Health, Connectivity, Mixed-use Development, Urban Density, Urban Form</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Translating the past 2018-11-08T14:55:43-05:00 Linfan Liu <p>ABSTRACT: Until today, extensive studies on the traditional Suzhou gardens have primarily considered it a cultural artifact. The academic subject of garden history and garden art has crafted a rich narrative to define and refine the material culture of China’s past. This essay, however, investigates the use of the ancient gardens as a generative means in contemporary architectural practice in China.</p> <p>The study mainly analyzes and compares two specific projects and their garden “prototypes” to explore the topic in detail. The first project is I. M. Pei’s Suzhou Museum (2002-06) and his childhood garden Lion Grove Garden; the second one is Wang Shu’s Library of Wenzheng College (1999-2000) and The Garden of Cultivation. Although both architects acknowledged traditional gardens as the major inspiration of their modern designs, the two architects revealed distinct focuses and approaches in the process of translation, which are explained in the thematic and comparative discussions, including the symbolic image and the spatial type, cultural narrative and bodily experience. The initial interpretive analyses of the two projects anchor on the articulated aspects of the individual architect’s interpretation respectively. The subsequent comparative study further demonstrates the complexity and parallels in the process of translation, thus realizing the comprehensive associations between the garden prototypes and architects’ own design philosophies.</p> <p>Through this comparative study, the essay aims to shift the interpretative paradigm of architecture through the lens of Suzhou garden. In contrast to the narrative constructed through ideological frameworks, the essay reasons how this spatial art is re-defined within a design discipline, and how the extracted concepts and techniques further shape contemporary architectural practice. Continuing the narrative of traditional gardens. the essay proposes the same metaphor of generative role of architectural design.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: symbolic image, spatial type, cultural narrative, life experience</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Affordances of Robotic Production 2018-11-08T14:58:23-05:00 Mahesh Daas Andrew John Wit <p>ABSTRACT: The paper delves into the unique affordances of robotic production in architecture and their growing potential to reshape the discipline when paired with Artificial Intelligence (AI). Over the past decade, a range of robots have been engaged within architectural production processes including fabrication, assembly, construction and real time responsiveness to materials and situational variances. The paper emphasizes the differences between the two-decade old paradigm of digital fabrication and the emerging paradigm of what we have termed and defined as robotic production.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Robotics; Manufacturing; Robotic Production; Computation</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Housing and culture in Ghana 2018-11-08T15:04:49-05:00 Dahlia Nduom <p>ABSTRACT: This research paper investigates the relationship between history, culture and housing and proposes design solutions which begin to address the notion of home for Akan residents of Accra. The research analyzes work done by historians who documented how Akan people in Ghana traditionally used space. The paper uses Amos Rapoport’s model of the dismantling of ‘culture’ as a framework for this analysis. It juxtaposes this historical notion of space against current urban issues in housing such as resident satisfaction, multi-habitation and density and over-crowding within the city. The analysis of these texts is supplemented by primary investigations conducted in Ghana. The paper concludes by showing how this cultural research can be used as a design strategy to develop new ways of looking at qualities of space, materials and sustainability principles for housing in Accra by describing case studies which have attempted to bridge this gap between research and evidence-based design. The examples presented in the paper show that it is possible to use this material to develop housing that is at once modern but also steeped in traditional and cultural notions of the home. The hope is that this approach can lead to innovative ways of thinking about affordable housing with increased resident satisfaction. The research presented in this paper also provides material for those architects aiming to utilize similar methods to translate cultural and historical research into a design strategy for housing.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Ghana, Housing, Culture, Evidence-Based Design</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Understanding the impact of the residential built environment design on inhabitants’ wellbeing 2018-11-08T15:07:37-05:00 Hameda Janahi Shibu Raman Gabriela Zapata-Lancaster <p>ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence suggests that some of the contemporary forms of the physical environment have a negative influence on the wellbeing of its inhabitants. This paper presents a literature review on the impact of the built environment on the inhabitants’ wellbeing in the residential context. The paper reviews recent literature from various interconnected fields such as psychology, physiology, and sociology in the built environment context. Previous research has shown that the characteristics of the built environment can influence all aspects of human life. The effect of the built environment on the physical and psychological wellbeing is extensively investigated. However, there is limited research on the relationship between the residential built environment and social wellbeing, as measured by social integration and cohesion which suggests the need for more exploration, particularly in the context of the Middle-East. The lack of understanding results in a disconnection between the local communities’ socio-cultural needs and actual design and supply of housing. The relationship between housing and wellbeing is complex and multidimensional. Moreover, behavioural, biological, cultural, social, physical and political factors are variables that affect this relationship. While studying physical environments and users, various theories and concepts can be found such as wellbeing, quality of life, happiness, life satisfaction and sustainability. This paper, through an in depth literature review, aims to distinguish the relationships and the overlap between the concepts. A review of previous methods and indicators used to measure and evaluate wellbeing and the quality of residential built environment, organised to aid architects and planners to predict the impact of their designs on the wellbeing of users. The broader aim of this research is to identify indicators that could be used in evaluating housing typologies and neighbourhoods in Qatar. Additionally, support in understanding the impact of the design on people’s wellbeing within the case study context.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Wellbeing, Residential built environment, Indicators.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Creating community 2018-11-08T15:09:39-05:00 Lyndsey Deaton <p>ABSTRACT: This paper describes resident’s perspectives on social capital in the context of tiny-house villages intended to mitigate housing insecurity. Three development models (one grassroots, one hybrid, and one traditional) are compared to understand how the architecture supports each village’s resocialization goal. Using an inductive framework, this study is founded on 21 interviews with residents and staff at each community as well as my observations as an Architect. I found common themes of stability, cleanliness, belonging, leadership, and community politics across all communities, which highlight key social dynamics that inform the resocialization process.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: tiny-house villages, total institutions, cohesion, urban morphology, and sustainability</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A cultural paradox and the double shift of the housing typologies in the Arabic Gulf area 2018-11-08T15:12:53-05:00 Apostolos Kyriazis Ayesha Zahid Shafaq Qamar <p>Abu Dhabi’s transition from a fishing village to a contemporary capital city in less than 50 years is more than remarkable. Its rapid growth, fueled by oil revenues and combined with a real estate frenzy is reflected into its urban morphology. The origin and evolution of Abu Dhabi’s urban grid has swung between political pragmatism and modernist influences of Doxiadis’ master plans in the region. However, its architecture is highly diverse in terms of stylistic approaches, with little influence from the rich Arabic vernacular heritage. Especially when it comes to housing, Abu Dhabi and most of the neighboring cities in the GCC area have been monopolized by the presence of the “western villa” typology. This phenomenon is poorly analyzed in related literature. This paper will present the preliminary results of two ongoing parallel undergraduate research programs with regards to the cultural clash that perseveres in forging the urban scape: the western villa, its properties manifesting an absolute contrast to the prevailing Islamic values and daily patterns. It will also attempt to identify the underlying resonate. In addition to that, there will be an analysis with regards to an attempt from the urban planning authorities towards a second shift back to the neglected principles of the Arabic urbanism and traditional architecture, for achieving sustainable targets. Indeed, Culture was recently introduced as the fourth pillar to the local sustainability accreditation system (called “Estidama”), in a parallel attempt to reinstitute a national identity. To that direction, both research and academic studios’ work have already started producing a promising outcome that would definitely affect the urban environment and improve its spatial and social parameters.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Abu Dhabi, typologies, housing, culture, Arabic</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cloud Magnet 2018-11-08T17:35:57-05:00 Rashida Ng Andrew Wit Tonia Hsieh <p>ABSTRACT: This paper presents data from Cloud Magnet, a research and design project conducted in the summer 2017 within the cloud forest of the Monteverde Biological Reserve in Costa Rica. Cloud Magnet explores the co-dependencies between material, form, energy, and environment. Cloud forests have been rapidly disappearing due to climate change and deforestation. Rising global temperatures and deforestation cause a cloud-lifting effect, raising the cloud cover above the tree canopy and forest ecosystem that depend on constant moisture and humidity to support its life. The impetus for this project is to explore how design can contribute to the stabilization of the atmosphere and the restoration of the forest. In recognition of the mutual and inseparable presence of built and natural contexts, Cloud Magnet suggests that architects bear an ethical responsibility for the health of the environment. As such, priorities of environmental performance might be extended beyond energy efficiency to include aspirations of environmental remediation and ecological healing to reverse the harmful effects of human habitation on the world.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: ethics, environmental restoration, material performance, phase change material, carbon fiber reinforced polymers</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Designing Happiness 2018-11-08T17:38:26-05:00 Rebecca Habtour Madlen Simon <p>ABSTRACT: Scientific studies exploring the environmental and experiential elements that help boost human happiness have become a significant body of expanding work. A wide variety of studies from both neuroscience and environmental psychology have recorded the restorative quality of the natural environment, noting both positive impacts on overall mental health, and strong correlations with self-reported happiness. This paper extracts insights on the impacts of social interaction, access, surprise, light, and beauty on happiness then extrapolates design principles and strategies to use in creating built environments that promote greater well-being. A virtual test case, drawn from a Master of Architecture thesis, is used to demonstrate possible ways these selected principles and design strategies can connect people to nature, with the intent to inform a science-backed approach to creating truly happy places. It is anticipated that these tactics will be useful to architects, planners, and urban designers as they endeavor to design positive user experience into form and place. To the best of our knowledge, many of these principles have not yet been tested and measured in real-world conditions. Potential future development would be collaboration with neuroscientists and environmental psychologists for examining post-occupancy testing of user experience in built environments.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Nature, Access, Happiness, Design</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Touching the ground 2018-11-09T15:48:56-05:00 Fahad Abdullah Alotaibi, 2036131 <p>ABSTRACT: Tall buildings, by definition, are vertical objects. Historically, architects are more concerned about the tops of towers and less about their bases. Understandably, this is to make a statement through which more attention to the building can be drawn. However, the building base—the podium—is the place that is important to ground the building within its context. This neglected part of tall buildings is responsible for not only welcoming people to this gigantic structure, but also mediating the scale of the tower with the surrounding buildings and creating a good public realm for the city. This paper aims to address the issue of urban integration between tall buildings and the urban fabric. To achieve this goal, a desk study and field work were undertaken. The former involved a literature and professional documents review, whereas the latter involved interviewing 23 experts from the Gulf Region (including architects, planners, and academics) and observing six tall buildings in the Gulf Region’s main cities, including Riyadh and Dubai. This study draws some lessons from comparing tall buildings in the Gulf Region with those in Canadian cities, including Toronto and Calgary. This paper concludes with proposing some design recommendations to improve urban integration, enhance the quality of ground spaces in tall buildings, and refine our experience with the podium.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: urban integration, public realm, tall buildings, vibrant places, tower podium</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ex-urban urbanity 2018-11-09T15:53:53-05:00 Stephen M Anderson <p>ABSTRACT: If happiness is associated with concepts of full-living, and if full-living is associated with city life, the tasks of architecture relative to the city assume an ethical cast. A better understanding of that nexus –full living, urbanity, city, architecture—will help inform those tasks, but the interrelation of those ideas is not obvious, and conventional presumptions regarding those relationships are inadequate. Despite conventional conflation of the two terms, cities do not guarantee urban living: even a dense, expansive city might lack or only weakly exhibit qualities associated with urbanity. A partial explanation for this non-synonymy between city and urbanity is that inasmuch as cities are physically composed of architectural works, neither does architecture guarantee urbanity: as with the city of which it is a part, a building, even if successful in other ways, might neglect or eschew provision of conditions conducive to urbanity. Much like a dining table’s essentiality to certain social structures of the meal, architecture is essential to the structure, character, and perpetuation of urbanity.</p> <p>Of the many sets of architectural questions that emerge from those premises, two are primary. If detachable from concepts of city, how should we understand the term urbanity? And, what kinds of architectural attentions effectively engage urbanity and render it more available, more probable? In short, what is urbanity and what is its architecture?</p> <p>As a preliminary move toward exploring those questions, this paper turns to Sverre Fehn’s Hamar Museum (1972). An unlikely building to bring to consideration of the architecture of urban life, a strong and purposeful concern for urbanity is nevertheless evident in its architect’s thinking and design. Fehn’s project helps inform an understanding of the nature of urbanity, and shows how an architectural concern for urban situations manifests at the scale of a building, from conceptual approach to the finest of constructed details.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: city, Fehn, culture, history, theory, ethics</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reading and interpreting Portuguese Atlantic seashore streets in sea level rise context 2018-11-09T15:54:48-05:00 Sérgio Barreiros Proença <p>ABSTRACT: The lead role and the morphological diversity of streets, avenues and seashore drives that conform the articulation line between city and water on Portuguese coastal settlements is acknowledged. The dynamic inherent to the urban object underlines the fact that the present state is just a transitory moment in the evolution of these elements. In this context, several studies on climate change acknowledge the gradual but inevitable sea level rising, and warn on its effects on urban and humanized areas. The convergence of research units of the University of Lisbon on urban morphology and on climate change allow stemming from the morphological knowledge on the origin, evolution and current state of the diversity of Portuguese Atlantic Seashore Streets, for the design of innovative solutions of adaptation measures and pathways to an expected and urgent scenario of sea-level rising. The research main goal is building a reference framework for interventions in each case, therefore site specific, with attention to the cultural and patrimonial values that make up each context, but with potential to define a methodology of approach and to typify operations or actions adaptable to similar contexts. The present state of these elements is understood as the result of a sedimentary evolution process in time. Therefore, the ongoing first phase of the research project on Portuguese Atlantic Seashore Streets deals with the interpretative reading through systemic decomposition of layers underlining Form, Function and Role of the state of evolution of each element and its relation to the urban settlement and to the sea. Departing from a generic characterization of the origin and evolution of these elements, the present paper uses the current pilot case studies of Sesimbra and Cascais to demonstrate the instrumental role of drawing for reading and interpreting the selected seashore streets.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: seashore streets, climate change adaptation, sea level rise, urban morphology, systemic decomposition.</p> 2018-11-09T00:00:00-05:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Towards a scenario-based approach to participatory design 2018-11-09T16:00:43-05:00 Ming-Chun Lee <p>ABSTRACT: Scenario-based community design enables designers and community members to work together to address uncertainty in future community growth and develop a range of alternative design solutions to envision and plan for possible future conditions. This essay traces the history of scenario-based design practice and attempts to understand its application to community design from a socio-technical perspective, which sees community design as both spatial inquiry and communicative action. The essay discusses the three fundamental components that enable the implementation of scenario-based design. These three components can be best understood from the three common perspectives of design: 1) evaluation: design as an iterative feedback loop; 2) visualization: design as spatial thinking; 3) collaboration: design as a participatory process. This essay then discusses two projects and demonstrates the key steps to implement these scenario analysis methods, including visioning, compiling data, and conducting community design workshops.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: scenario planning, participatory design, citizen participation, community design, geographic information system</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An in-depth look at design students as they embark on teaching architecture to children 2018-11-09T16:11:51-05:00 Margaret McManus <p>ABSTRACT: Affording higher education design students the opportunity to teach their skills in the community has proven to be a positive and meaningful experience that often benefits both their personal and professional lives. By instating a program at the University, titled Architecture In Schools (AIS), students who step up to the challenge of teaching others begin to take on leadership roles beyond any that are offered within the confines of a campus, and responsibilities that push them well outside their design discipline. This program is different from a typical volunteer service program; here students are incentivized by college credit all the while understanding that the particular position necessitates considerable time outside of contact-service hours and professional conduct as representatives of their schools and communities. This paper takes an in-depth look at the learning objectives that an outreach program can satisfy for university students who take part, and inturn touches on why such engagement is essential to the community at-large.</p> <p>Evidence shows that the impacts are consistently positive from the recipients of such a program: the primary and secondary students (and indirectly—the community); but it is the study of the higher education students in which primary qualitative measures are being considered. It can be difficult to measure--as discrepancies are hard to come by when evaluating the happiness (or can we call it rewards?) of the college participants, therefore Bloom’s Taxonomy has been used as a standard means of assessing learning objectives and justifying the course’s viability. This particular endeavor aims to better understand the effects that this type of service (for credit) might have in the midst of a college setting—particular to architecture students—when considering their expectations against actual outcomes related to their experiences with Architecture In Schools.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Teaching, Architecture, Children, Outreach, Independent Study</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Building Information Modeling and Virtual Reality 2018-11-09T16:20:07-05:00 Zhan Yang Karen Kensek <p>ABSTRACT: Building information modeling (BIM) is used throughout a building’s lifecycle from design to operations and maintenance (O&amp;M). Virtual reality (VR) can be used for real-time simulation of a user's presence in a 3D interactive environment. Three workflows of BIM based VR were developed and applied towards design review and facility management (FM) for a patient room: (1) cinematic VR; (2) Revit + Unity; and (3) Revit + Fuzor. In the first workflow, a VR film was made with Revit, Maya, Mettle Skybox, Handbrake, Redshift, and After Effects to present the project through an Oculus Rift HMD for a semi-interactive immersive VR experience. In the second workflow, parameter data including the equipment’s manufacturer, cost, and website was added to a project file in Revit. The geometry was exported to Unity using Maya as a go-between. The data was extracted from the Revit schedule to a text file. In Unity, the data was parsed based on a unique identifier and linked back to the equipment through C# scripting based on a panel based user interface of Unity. Through customized programming, the outcome was a room in VR where equipment information appeared on canvas panels. The third workflow used Revit, a database of the equipment in Excel, Fuzor, and a customized link written in Python using the Fuzor Application Program Interface (API). Fuzor was chosen as it is a game engine based solution specifically tailored for the building industry. An XML tool was developed to link an Excel sheet to the Revit and Fuzor models. This tool has immediate application potential because the Excel file can be any kind of database in a real project like a maintenance or repair logging schedule.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Building Information Modeling (BIM), Virtual Reality (VR), 3D Game Engine, Integrated Facility Management (IFM), Design Review of Healthcare Facility</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## EQuALS 2018-11-09T16:24:32-05:00 Tom Collins <p>ABSTRACT: The past 25 years has seen the emergence of active learning classrooms on higher education campuses. The goals of these spaces are to: improve student learning outcomes; change the way instructors engage with students; and offer increased flexibility and access to technology. In short, active learning classrooms aim to provide new, innovative, and state-of-the-art learning environments. Research on active learning classrooms tends to focus on the virtual learning environment independent from the physical classroom conditions. However, there is limited evidence that physical environmental factors in classrooms can influence (help and/or hinder) student performance outcomes, perceptions, and behavior. The study addresses a gap in the literature by examining indoor environmental quality (IEQ) parameters (e.g. air quality, comfort, lighting, and acoustics) in five refurbished active learning classrooms.</p> <p>This mixed methods study relies on two frameworks for field studies of existing indoor environments: postoccupancy evaluation and the ASHRAE Performance Measurement Protocol (PMP). Data collection involved: interviews with stakeholders and observations in the classrooms; occupant surveys to gauge satisfaction levels with the physical environment; and spot measurements in the classrooms as a way of comparing existing conditions to industry metrics and benchmarks.</p> <p>Findings suggest that the classrooms meet or exceed industry benchmarks for IEQ. Several surprising outcomes also emerged from the study. Classroom users do not appear to take advantage of opportunities to adjust IEQ conditions in the classrooms. Furthermore, retrofitted classrooms present spatial and environmental constraints for active learning environments. The five active learning classrooms examined provide satisfactory IEQ conditions, but these spaces may not be achieving their full potential. Additional research is needed to optimize these spaces and inform future classroom design and classroom research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: active learning, indoor environmental quality</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Developing bioinspired approaches in undergraduate architecture curricula 2018-11-09T16:26:52-05:00 Kihong Ku <p>ABSTRACT: Bioinspiration, biomimicry, biomimetics, are some of the terms being increasingly referenced in the fields of architecture and building engineering in the search for innovation towards sustainability, energy and resource efficiency. Some scholars define biomimetics as an interdisciplinary scientific field and emphasize the complexity of translating an inspiration from nature to a final technological product. The focus is to gain a deeper understanding of functional analogies, processes and mechanisms that aim to abstract fundamental principles beyond morphological analogies which are primarily focusing on the formal aspects.</p> <p>In this paper, the author examines pedagogical research in bioinspired approaches incorporating computational design methods. This research acknowledges the lack of formalized bioinspired design methods and explains pedagogical case studies to expand the literature. The method is particularly applied in design courses that apply computational methods. The findings suggest that the pedagogical explorations are compatible with methods found in literature and demonstrate that computational tools and methods are important support tools for biomorphic form translations and generations, functional analysis, and prototyping.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Bioinspired design, generative design, fiber composites, curricular innovation, sustainability</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Quantified Comparison of Landscape Urbanism and New Urbanism 2018-11-09T16:29:27-05:00 Milad Fereshtehnezhad <p>ABSTRACT: Landscape Urbanism and New Urbanism are two of the most recent and most relevant paradigms in contemporary urbanism. The two offer some major differences (such as density and approach towards urban sprawl, transportation mode choice, urban block size and arrangement, etc.) as well as some similarities (such as ecological sensibility, natural resource preservation, and connectivity of the urban fabric), causing them to become interested in similar urban contexts (such as post-industrial and brownfield sites), and making them comparable. Recently, there has been a lot of discussion around the conceived ideological, theoretical, and physical differences of these two paradigms, where proponents of each have brought forth arguments aimed at proving the superiority of their side and refuting the other. Despite the extent of these arguments, no quantitative comparison has been offered. To this date, the majority of these discussions have remained quite superficial. This paper proposes the use of Space Syntax as a methodology that can help fill this literature gap for meaningful quantitative comparison between the two paradigms. For the purpose of this study, a comparable Landscape Urbanist and a New Urbanist project were selected. The Lower Don Lands (Landscape Urbanist) and the West Don Lands (New Urbanist) projects are both located in downtown Toronto, Canada. They are both very recent projects and are of comparable sizes. A common claim between Landscape Urbanism and New Urbanism, and a relevant issue in contemporary urbanism, is the connectivity of the urban fabric. This characteristic was selected to be quantitatively compared between the two case studies through measures of the Space Syntax methodology. As such, the two case studies were compared using “connectivity” and “mean depth” measures. Results were then assessed to determine which project performed more successfully in making a connection between its site and the surrounding urban fabric.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Landscape Urbanism, New Urbanism, Space Syntax, Integration, Mean Depth</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Can Environmental Design and Street Lights’ Retrofit Affect Crime Incidents in San Antonio? 2018-11-09T16:31:50-05:00 Azza Kamal Jae Yong Suk <p>ABSTRACT: The neighborhood planning and street design are two major contributors to the physical environment’s implications on safety measures. Natural surveillance, including glazing, lighting, and positioning of non-private areas and access paths inside and outside of buildings, has been studied ever since Oscar Newman and Jane Jacobs writings on successful design of streets with community spaces and observer’s control of outside spaces. Various methods and data processing tools are used in the literatures to examine the location’s capacity for natural surveillance as a major player in Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design [CPTED] and criteria such as space formation, nighttime lighting and its intensity, and visibility are used to identify crime hotspots. This paper is part of a broader project that examines environmental variables acting as crime generators at the public realm in the City of San Antonio [CoSA], and it focuses on drug, property, and violent [DPV] crimes reported for the period from 2012 to 2016. The study area is comprised of ten-neighborhood alongside the historic corridor of Fredericksburg Rd. Using geoprocessing tools of Geographic Information Systems, the method included univariate analysis of five environmental design variables: land use, street network, major transportation corridors, public spaces (parks and bus stops buffers), and street lights. Variables were triangulated with crime hotspots and the results showed that two neighborhoods (Gardendale and Five Points) have endured perseverance of crime hotspots from 2012 to 2016 in areas where multiple variables non-grid street network, parks, highway underpass, and a mix of commercial, industrial and multifamily land use were detected. When these variables exist in one location, they acted as crime-generators and created situational crime areas with intensity of crimes in public open space. The study provides a pathway for further examining -through qualitative data and micro scale analysis- to intervene in policy and design of public space in order to mitigate the likelihood of crime occurrence and endurance.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Crime, Environmental Design, Land Use, Street Network, and Street lights</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Street Lighting and Public Safety 2018-11-09T16:34:26-05:00 Jae Yong Suk Rebecca Walter <p>ABSTRACT: While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: street lighting, public safety, nighttime environment, LED, High Pressure Sodium</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Extending Skin 2018-11-09T16:36:12-05:00 Philip Plowright <p>ABSTRACT: Architects use metaphor constantly in their writing, speech and project development. It is engaged for its ability to transfer meaning and as an aid in orientating design positions (Collins 1971; Seligmann and Seligmann 1977; Alberti 1988; Forty 2000; Hearn 2003; Muller 2009; Libeskind 2012). While architects have acknowledged the general presence of metaphor as part of design theory, there is little understanding of metaphor’s deeper role in architectural cognition and its effect on architectural values (Lakoff and Johnson 1980; Caballero 2006). This paper examines a small aspect of metaphor use in architecture in order to follow a thread from historically grounded applications of metaphorical terms to contemporary and highly conventionalized conceptualization of spatial design. The focus is on the HUMAN BODY as a source domain and, in particular, the concept of skin. Through the discussion, skin (and thus the human body) is shown to be present in architectural discussions not only knowingly used metaphorical expressions but also in highly conventionalized and normalized occurrences. These unrecognized examples of conceptual metaphors allow skin move well beyond simply being an analogue for a building enclosure. Rather, concepts related to skin are extended into interpretations of actions as a projection of human capacity into deep disciplinary examples of architectural concepts and abstractions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: conceptual metaphor theory, architectural theory, cognitive linguistics, building as body, conventionalization, cognitive semantics</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Good Governance of Mexico City's Zócalo 2018-11-09T16:38:07-05:00 Benjamin A. Bross <p>Abstract: The change in elected government of the Federal District (Distrito Federal), from the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) to that of the center-left PRD party, was of utmost importance for the evolution of the Zócalo’s representative space. Using Lefebvre’s semiotic tools for the analyses of spatial production1 through the prism of Cultural Geography and Social History, this article studies one of Mexico’s most important symbolic spaces: The Plaza de la Constitución, colloquially known as the Zócalo. With the ascension of new local and federal governments, the plaza began a process of transformation from a space controlled by the State for the State’s demonstrations of power, to an open, inclusive space for all users. As of 1997 diverse cultural, recreational, and mass movement events began to be promoted and experienced on the Plaza.2 This article explains the process by which the Zócalo began to change through spatial appropriation of the absolute space by varied groups with diverse interests and organizational purposes. In the first part, the essay discusses the so-called “March of Dignity”, which attracted the participation of people from all sectors: student and youth associations, peasant farmer and laborer communities, blue collar and low-income industrial workers, populist groups, civic organizations, to name a few. The article then describes the impact of Spencer Tunick’s project titled “May 6, 2007: naked Zócalo.” Tunick’s spatial intervention was a massive scale human participation art/happening project. Finally, the article then turns its attention to the recent Ayotzinapa protests and the symbolic significance of the damage done to the Mariana Door of the National Palace which occurred because of the civil unrest of this period.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Analysis of Energy Efficiency of a Smart Envelope Package in Residential Buildings 2018-11-09T16:41:53-05:00 Yeo Beom Yoon Brian Baewon Koh Soolyeon Cho <p>ABSTRACT: In the 1980s and 90s, the construction codes of South Korea did not require substantial insulation, which resulted in a large amount of cooling and heating energy uses in high-rise residential complexes. About 3.6 million residential units were constructed during that period. Since 2014, the Korean government initiated an incentive program to remodel the aged residential units, and only about 2,000 units have taken advantage of the incentive in the last 3 years. Over the last two to three decades, residents have extended living spaces to the balcony areas which were designed to serve as a sun space using passive solar principles. The energy consumption has consequently increased significantly due to the loss of thermal buffer area and an addition of the conditioned space. This study proposes a Smart Envelope Package that can replace an existing exterior window enclosing the living room area of such residential units. This smart envelope package is designed to reduce building’s energy use functioning as a Double Skin Façade, and comes with Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) to generate electricity, an Energy Storage System (ESS), an A/C condenser, sun-shading devices, automated operable windows and an air filtration system. The Smart Envelope Package aims to reduce cooling and heating energy consumption and to produce electricity during daytime as well, which will be stored in the ESS and used during peak hours and nighttime. The trend of adopting prototype floor plans with very little modifications 20-30 years ago makes the package possible to be modularized and pre-fabricated. This paper discusses optimal sustainable design strategies for the development of the Smart Envelope Package system. The main goal and result of this paper is to find a new product to reduce the energy consumption in old high-rise residential building in South Korea.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Smart Envelope Package, Energy Efficiency, High-rise residential building, EnergyPlus</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The raw earth brick 2018-11-09T16:46:09-05:00 Mango Itulamya Lavie Arsène Courtejoie Fabienne Fagel Nathalie <p>ABSTRACT: This study tests the ways of improving compressed earth bricks by the addition of sugar cane bagasse, alluvial sand and fine aggregates. The objective is to contribute to the valorization of clay resources, with the aim of developing the production of sustainable, local and energy-saving building materials, particularly in the peri-urban areas of Kinshasa in D.R.Congo. Two raw clays were characterized and then mixed with the different additives to obtain raw earth bricks. Those bricks were then submitted to flexural and compression tests to evaluate their mechanical properties. The addition of 0 to 7.5% bagasse increases the flexural strength from 0.66 to 0.99MPa and the compressive strength from 2.54 to 3.14 MPa. The addition of 0 to 50% sand increases the flexural strength from 0.56 to 0.71 MPa and the compressive strength from 2.28 to 3.09 MPa. The addition of 0 to 35% of fine aggregate does not affect the flexural strength, but increases the compressive strength from 2.28 to 3,10MPa. Stabilization with sugarcane bagasse, sand or aggregates is an interesting prospect to improve by a factor of the order of 1/3 the mechanical properties of raw earth bricks. In addition the mechanical properties are also affected by environmental variation in humidity. The durability of the bricks (i.e., its resistance to water) was therefore evaluated by “the wetting drying test” after an addition of cement. The compressive strength after six cycles of wetting-drying decreases by 25% for the bagasse mixture, 6% for the sand mixture and 2% for the aggregate mixture. Likely an addition of cement allows to significantly increase the durability.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Raw earth, valorization, stabilization, durability.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Solar design For Wellbeing and Expression 2018-11-09T16:49:07-05:00 Clifton Fordham <p>ABSTRACT: Immediately before completing the Yale Art Gallery, Kahn built a psychiatric hospital in Philadelphia which is a relative footnote in accounts of his institutional work. Although the subject of the building is burdened by stigma and access limited, the Radbill addition to the Philadelphia Psychiatric Hospital warrants renewed attention in light of a sophisticated design that introduced architectural order and deft detailing to a demanding building type. The hospital is organized so that spaces warranting more privacy are at higher levels, corresponding with glazing that is proportionally shorter than at the lower levels. Horizontal shading devices of three different depths are shallower at the upper levels in acknowledgement of a reduced shading burden when windows are shallower. The psychiatric hospital was built at a time when the effects of post-war material rationing was still resonant in the planning of buildings, and institutional buildings were still designed for natural ventilation and conditioning. In this context, passive strategies to counter excessive solar heat gain when daylighting was desirable, since thermal discomfort could not be completely offset by mechanically. As mechanical conditioning became standard in the United States, passives solar control strategies receded and building facades flattened. Despite a scientific basis for shading devices provided by academics including the Olgyay brothers, solar design remains largely an intuitive process. With the advent of digital modeling and analysis, predictability of solar device performance renews cause for exploiting their potential and maximizing daylight while minimizing corresponding liabilities of glazing. Digital analysis also permits better understanding of solar impact on existing buildings allowing for expanded methods of historical analysis and understanding of architectural significance. It advances a position where unseen characteristics of building design are given standing alongside visible characteristics. Central to this is the use academic study of the health benefits of daylighting.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Daylighting, Shading, Glazing</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Data-Driven Design in High Modernism 2018-11-09T16:51:23-05:00 Ute Poerschke <p>ABSTRACT: This paper presents High Modernism as a predecessor of today’s discourse on evidencebased design. The 1920s and 1930s provide rich examples of promoting the relationship between research and design, as many modern protagonists claimed their designs resulted from analyzed data and expert input rather than historical reference or creative talent. Scientists, economists, engineers, and architects alike investigated problems such as hygiene conditions in housing and cities, human needs at work and home, construction mechanization, and traffic optimization as the basis and justification of spatial designs. As an example, this paper addresses the discourse on best solar orientation of housing, with the architect and urbanist Ludwig Hilberseimer as one of several proponents of this discourse, among them Walter Gropius, Ernst May, and Le Corbusier. Regarding solar studies, Hilberseimer’s projects and writings can be divided into three phases. The first phase is marked by his famous 1920s renderings of the residential city and high-rise metropolis, which conform to the orientation recommendations by urban planners Richard Baumeister and Karl Hoepfner. The second phase spans Hilberseimer’s teaching at the Bauhaus from 1929 to 1933, in which he contributed to the extensive solar studies for diverse housing types undertaken at the Bauhaus building department. A third phase, in which he applied the findings to “settlement units” in linear city patterns, came to full fruition after 1938 when Hilberseimer started teaching at the Armour Institute, later renamed the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago. The case of solar studies in High Modernism and Hilberseimer’s work in particular illuminate the challenges of relating research, performance-driven design, and actual building projects.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: evidence-based design, housing, hygiene, Durchsonnung, “Licht Luft Sonne”</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Facilitating the WELL Building Standard through Wellness Programs in the Workplace 2018-11-09T16:53:58-05:00 Jinoh Park Traci Rose Rider <p>ABSTRACT: This study explores establishing a theoretical connection between wellness programs and the built environment based on the WELL Building Standard, aiming to identify affordable building strategies which can support wellness program implementation. First, this study outlines the process of building a wellness program designed under both U.S. regulations and programs designed by wellness program providers. Second, existing wellness programs are broken down by respective categories in the outlined structure. Third, the categorical concepts and criteria of the WELL Building Standard are arranged according to the established categories and programs. Fourth, overlaps between the subdivided wellness programs and the WELL Building Standard are compared to identified elements of existing wellness programs. Finally, this paper suggests the incorporation of the WELL Building Standard into wellness programs by changing the paradigm of the built environment from an environmental context to an active contributor to a wellness program.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Workplace, WELL Building Standard, Wellness Program, Health, Built Environment</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Resilient & Affordable Housing for the US Gulf Coast 2018-11-09T16:56:55-05:00 Robert Holton Michele Barbato Nitin Kumar <p>ABSTRACT: Objective: Southern Louisiana is currently under great pressure to increase the quantity of resilient and affordable housing available within its local communities. Can earthen building mediums traditionally used in hot dry climates be re-appropriated for use in hot wet climates to help address this need? Methodology: In our current period of climate change, unpredictable events have and will continue to displace thousands of residence in the coastal region of Louisiana. This historic unseating of entire communities necessitates a reconsideration of standard housing solutions. Constructed primarily of materials accessible from the building site, compressed stabilized earth block design and building techniques offer an economical and sustainable approach to the current increase in demand for weather resistant housing. To investigate the composition of earthen material in Southern Louisiana, a United States Geological Survey soil classification map and chart were consulted to identify locations of different regional soil types. Several locations in the area proved to be potential sites being composed of material that fell within the guidelines for soil compositions suitable to making compressed stabilized earth blocks. Forming the tested soil into earth blocks was realized by fabricating a manual block press to produce the 10” x 6” x 3” modules. Varying mixtures with differing percentages of cement, the stabilizing agent, were formulated to test how the stabilizer influenced the blocks strength and durability. After curing for 28 days, blocks were tested for resistance to compressive and tensile forces with successful results in line with building regulations of hot dry areas. Achieved outcomes: In response to the need for affordable, climate responsive, housing in coastal Louisiana single-family prototype designs were then developed using compressed stabilized earth blocks as the primary construction element. The critical demand for housing in regions around the gulf coast has been recently documented in the article, Resettling the First American ‘Climate Refugees’ by Coral Davenport and Campbell Robertson published in the New York Times on May 3rd 2016. The article, focusing on Isle de Jean Charles located along the Louisiana gulf coast, details the experience of resettling local residents due to flooding. Unfortunately, this phenomenon of water inundation is more than an isolated event. In August 2016 thousands of residents across southern Louisiana were displaced by severe flooding, a likely outcome of climate change. The need for affordable housing for the numerous families driven out of their homes, as well as for other low-income families, is an essential and pressing concern for the region. Through the novel use of engineered earth blocks in a hot wet environment and an awareness of local contextual parameters, the prototype designs offer an affordable, resilient, and sensitive way to bring about housing for the many individuals in need. From our research we have concluded that it is feasible to reappropriate earthen building materials found in hot dry climates to construct enduring structures responsive to a hot wet environment.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Affordable, Sustainable, Housing, Climate-Change</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Optimization Workflow for a Dynamic Mass Envelope System using Complementary Digital and Physical Testing Methods 2018-11-09T17:00:33-05:00 Matthew Gindlesparger Shay Harrison Justin Shultz Jason Vollen <p>ABSTRACT: Building envelopes significantly contribute to energetic gains and losses, relying on insulation and HVAC systems to maintain thermal comfort. The Thermally Active Ceramic Envelope (TACE) is being developed to capture, transform, re-distribute bioclimatic energy flows rather than act as a barrier. By redirecting rather than rejecting thermal energy, building envelopes act as on-demand variable mass systems which can achieve the same balancing effects as traditional thermal mass approaches, without such intensive material requirements. By managing entropy production at the envelope, it is reasonable to expect lower mechanical system energy expenditures to maintain thermal comfort. This paper outlines two parallel methods of analysis, physical and digital, used to inform design decisions in the development of TACE systems. In the first method, digital simulation, multiple digital models were prepared to characterize the thermal performance of TACE tile modules. With a well-prepared simulation model, design iterations can be quickly tested for efficacy. The digital simulation model was developed using conservation of mass and energy equations and validated against CFD testing to assess possible performance of the TACE system. The second method of analysis is physical thermal characterization testing of TACE tile assemblies, using a modified hot-box test chamber to provide accurate thermal results. To leverage the benefits and minimize the shortcomings of each of the two methods, experimental results from this physical testing are used as a calibration tool for the digital simulation models. Calibration inputs from the physical testing were used to adjust the digital simulation models to correlate all analysis results. With a calibrated digital simulation framework, TACE tile modules can be proposed and tested before investing time and materials into developing further prototypes. The end result is a design workflow to evaluate and assess thermal performance of TACE tile modules.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Active Façade, Thermal Transfer, CFD, Energy Modeling, High-Performance Façade</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Social Impact 2018-11-09T17:17:32-05:00 Jeremy Voorhees <p>ABSTRACT: Although the City of Philadelphia employs a catalogue of legal codes and laws to manage its urban growth, its inclusion of a “Social Impact” metric in a recent project is equally novel and vague. Opportunistically leveraging a prominent and sizable block, the Philadelphia Redevelopment Authority issued a Request for Proposals that required the developers to not only demonstrate how they would benefit the social fabric of the city, but provide metrics in order to do so.</p> <p>While measuring social impact is fraught with difficulties, it shows a willingness of the city to scrutinize the effect of its architecture on the city as a whole. Over the past decade, Philadelphia has enacted drastic shifts in its urban planning protocols ranging from an overhaul of its zoning maps to a restructuring of property tax evaluation.</p> <p>This paper will examine the first project to emerge from this process: a mixed use development that includes housing, a chain hotel, and the Equal Justice Center. It will describe the emergence of the social metric, position it among other current planning mechanisms aimed at equitable development, and speculate about its potential impact.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Social Impact, Urban Development, Philadelphia Redevelopment</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Architect Meet Ecologist 2018-11-09T17:19:32-05:00 Dustin Albright <p>ABSTRACT: This paper describes ongoing design research at Clemson University that explores the intersection between massive timber building systems, as leveraged for an academic facility, and topics of sustainable forestry, forest health, and carbon footprint. At the center is a topical design studio course in which students designed a new laboratory for Clemson’s Baruch Institute for Coastal Ecologies and Forest Science (BICEFS), in Georgetown, South Carolina. Students were challenged to utilize massive timber building systems, including Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), while discovering their structural and environmental benefits, and considering the potential impacts of the associated construction on the sensitive site. Additionally, students were required to examine the embodied energies of these timber systems using BIM and available estimation tools. This aspect was of particular interest to BICEFS, as it dovetails with their own research on carbon sequestration. The paper presents selections from the laboratory proposals as well as the carbon footprint data and related methodologies, all while considering the degree to which such questions can be successfully integrated into the design studio. The paper concludes by outlining research objectives for future phases of the project, including more in-depth LCA studies plus embedded monitoring of structural and envelope performance.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: massive timber, carbon footprint, forest ecologies</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Eternal Gardens & Wretched Hives 2018-11-09T17:21:12-05:00 Phillip M. Crosby <p>ABSTRACT: Cities and the cinema have been inextricably linked ever since Louis Lumière filmed workers leaving his family’s factory in 1895. Lumière’s cinématographe was smaller and lighter than Thomas Edison’s kinematograph, enabling it to be easily moved about the urban environment. This would eventually lead to the development of the “city symphony” genre—epitomized by films like Walter Ruttmann’s Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Großstadt (1927) and Dziga Vertov’s Man with a Movie Camera (1929)—which portrays the everyday urban life of rapidly-growing and quickly-changing cities. While these early films examined the city as a subject in itself, more recent films—especially in the science fiction genre—have used cities and urban environments as tools to reinforce the thematic elements of the film. As perhaps the most influential form of popular culture of the twentieth century, film is one of the primary avenues through which the public is exposed to ideologies of the modern city. Furthermore, recent research has shown that film may strongly influence the opinions and perceptions of an audience. As a result it is essential that scholars of the built environment recognize the role that film plays in developing the cultural understanding of urban spaces. Thus, this paper will examine three common themes from science fiction films that have implications for our understanding of cities—the stratified city, the segregated city, and the synthetic city.i Through the analysis of cinematic spaces this paper will show how the ideas of thinkers like Friedrich Engels, Georg Simmel, Mike Davis, Trevor Boddy, Frederic Jameson, David Harvey, Rem Koolhaas, and Charles Waldheim have been disseminated to the public. This paper will also discuss how these films may be used in an academic setting to engage students in discussions of urban issues that can oftentimes be difficult to grasp in the abstract.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Film, Cities, Urbanism, Science Fiction, Pedagogy</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigation of human eye pupil size as an indicator of visual sensation 2018-11-09T17:24:15-05:00 Joon-Ho Choi Xiaoxin Lin Marc Schiler <p>Abstract: Lighting is the most crucial factor impacting an occupants’ visual comfort in a building environment. However, most prevailing current lighting guidelines deriving from empirical values are designed primarily for paper-based tasks, rather than computer-based. In many cases, present guidelines have been reported that there is a limitation to meet the needs of a user’s new task types. Above all, existing technical tools also have a limited function to evaluate a user’s real-time visual perception which can be applied as an indicator to control a building lighting system. This research estimated each participant’s visual sensations by analyzing pupil sizes and their change patterns since the human body have the physiological regulation ability which naturally minimizes the adverse effects of the surrounding environment on the human body. This study adopted a series of human subject experiments which were performed in an environmental chamber of USC. Based on a computer-based task which is most commonly performed in current offices, various ranges of ambient lighting parameters, including luminance (cd/m2), illuminance (lux), contrast ratio, and UGR, were generated and controlled while each subject’s pupil sizes were recorded. The experimental result data were statistically analyzed to identify a relationship between human visual sensations, lighting parameters, and also pupil sizes by ethnic origin and myopia condition. The research outcomes showed the potential use of pupil sizes for estimating an individual’s visual sensationand confirmed the principle as an applicable technology to integrate an environmental design and control system with the help of a real-time sensing device.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A growing economic challenge 2018-11-09T17:36:58-05:00 Abdullah Alkenaidari Julian Wang <p>ABSTRACT: Saudi Arabia (SA) has been giving significant attention to energy conservation since the year 2014 due to the oil crisis and the extensive energy consumption in the building sector, particularly residential buildings. Buildings in Saudi Arabia occupy between 75%-79% of the total electricity consumption (Tlili 2015; Alrashed et al. 2012; Krarti et al. 2017). Residential buildings are responsible for 49%-52% of the total building consumption in the country (Tlili 2015; Alrashed et al. 2012; Krarti et al. 2017). Air conditioners and refrigerators consume 80% of electricity in residential buildings. This paper aims to explore the following questions: What are the attitudes and design practices among design teams towards energy efficiency? What are the existing building features under the impact of the Saudi Arabian government’s energy conservation policy? To be able to tackle these questions, a web-based survey on the energy efficient building designrelated attitudes and practices of design teams was conducted. The survey was administered in July and August 2017. We categorized the existing buildings into four timeframes upon the SA policy’s agenda: less than five years old (built after 2012), between six to ten years old (built between 2007 and 2012), between eleven to fifteen years old (built between 2002 and 2006), and over fifteen years old (built before 2002). The survey reached 119 participants who are design practitioners in the building construction area. The survey contains 18 questions divided into five categories, i.e. background information, walls, roof, exterior doors, and windows. The participants were asked to answer three to four questions for each building envelope component. The findings of the survey present the main energy efficient indicators which have been used by design practitioners since 2002. This study may advise on the content and format of the future energy efficient design guide and economical retrofitting strategies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: Energy Efficiency, Building Envelope, Saudi Arabia, Construction Practice, Economic Challenges.</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ageing well in place 2018-11-09T17:47:22-05:00 Gwendoline Schaff Catherine Elsen Ann Petermans Jan Vanrie Fabienne Courtejoie <p>ABSTRACT: In front of the challenges that are brought about by the ageing of our population, it is a responsibility to all stakeholders in the field of architecture to consider today our housing of tomorrow. This article, focused on the topic of ageing in place and more specifically on housing adjustments favoring this process, attempts to clarify and assemble the existing literature, considering the topic at hand from three complementary viewpoints: the functional, the affective and the temporal dimension of feeling “at home”. First, the functional dimension, which is closely linked to the architectural field, looks at different scales of housing interventions. Next, the affective dimension of the habitat is studied through the lenses of home and subjective well-being. These lenses enable us to assert the need to combine both the functional and affective dimensions of home in order to promote ageing well in place. Finally, the temporal dimension of the architectural intervention is discussed, in order to position these theoretical models while taking into account the constantly evolving context.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: architecture; ageing in place; home; subjective well-being</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The PhD x-Ray 2018-11-09T18:00:38-05:00 Filipa Roseta Tadeja Zupancic Debora Domingo-Calabuig Harriet Harriss <p>ABSTRACT: Since the signing of the Bologna Declaration in 1999, third cycle education, or, most specifically, doctoral training, has been growing in number of candidates and in relevance in most European schools of Architecture. The European Association for Architectural Education (EAAE), through its Research Academy group (RA), created a questionnaire with the purpose of understanding the possibilities and challenges of the current third cycle education programmes within the range of the EAAE full-member schools. The questionnaire was prepared in 2016 and sent to all the EAAE ‘s full-member schools throughout 2017. The questionnaire was conceived as a survey, including both quantitative and qualitative questions, thus providing a broad understanding of the third cycle education programmes assessed. This paper aims to present the first results assessed through a comparative analysis of the answers to the questionnaires. Thus far, the EAAERA has received answers from 39 schools; however, we have limited this initial paper to the analysis of 23 schools. The results arising from this questionnaire aim to initiate a debate on architectural research based not on assumptions but on actual data. We wish to disseminate these original findings in the ARCC-EAAE 2018 conference to invite a broader group of schools and researchers into this discussion. These results can later be used, on one hand, to support a further global interconnection and research network and, on the other hand, to promote a European policy paper in support of the doctoral training in architecture, identifying good practices and strategic possibilities within a global architectural research community that is, today, united in diversity, safeguarding local culture while seeking a common ground for dialogue and change.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: EAAE, Research in Architecture, PhD, doctoral training, third cycle education</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## La Ville du Bien-Être Collectif 2018-11-09T18:02:45-05:00 Robert Holton <p>ABSTRACT: Objectives: To provide a strategic framework for the utilization of under developed rural land with the intent of enhancing the economy, creating work opportunities, and strengthening the general wellbeing of the population. The goal is to provide a community infrastructure that allows for equal access to resources and opportunities for each citizen. Methodology: The development of a master plan for the community of Gressier Haiti, a coastal town near the capitol Portau- Prince. La Ville du Bien-Être Collectif is distinctive in the way it responds to the community development goals of the Haitian government in a single unified plan. The plan’s transformative approach is designed to overcome the extensive economic and social problems of the country. The organizing principles are founded on reconstructing the economy, re-growing the middle class, stabilizing the physical context, and reducing the impact of natural disasters. The primary economic driver of the community is the defining of an educational and commercial center focused on value-added agriculture. A vocational college is at the core of the center with a social agenda to educate a new generation of agro-entrepreneurs in techniques leading to improved crop production through sustainable practices. Achieved outcomes: The master plan is organized around a compact center surrounded by residential neighborhoods and a buffer of green agricultural fields. The neighborhoods, oriented towards middle-income inhabitants, are developed at a pedestrian scale and each have a social communal core. The entire community responds to the natural environmental conditions and is supported by sustainable practices which promote selfsufficiency. The master plan presents successful strategies to expand the middle class in the current socioeconomic conditions of Haiti. It is capable of adaptation to other sites and has the potential to be transferred as an innovative planning technique throughout the Caribbean.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>KEYWORDS: sustainable, community, prototype, reconstruct, re-grow</p> 2018-09-25T00:00:00-04:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##